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Vor.vi: .SKA OFKirKH's SHEET MCHOR 
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Z_EAMAXXHJT>. 


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Y//r// 


with Adiiitious 


GEORGE W. BLUNT 


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E & G .WJiMINT 




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1»43 







































THE AUTHOR’S DESIGN. 


— 


IN elucidating the Theory of Seamanship, where very few technical terms are neces¬ 
sary, explanatory figures have always been deemed indispensable. The Author imagined 
they might at least be equally useful in a description of the practice, which must be given 
in terms of art; particularly as it might induce many to study the profession, who have no 
previous knowledge of Geometry. 


A mere verbal explanation often perplexes the mind, for no one but a seaman can clear¬ 
ly comprehend it; and he is not the object for whom such aid is intended. 


There has been scarcely any improvement in the working of ships, since the production 
of a Treatise on Practical Seamanship, by the late Hr. AViluaiu Hutchinson, of Liver¬ 
pool, which was given to the public about thirty years ago,— a work of great merit, written 
by a real seaman ; the first of any consequence on this subject ever published ; and perhaps 
the only one, in which a few figures of ships have been given, to explain the working of 
them. In the leading of rigging, there have been some useful varieties since that period ; 
of which as many are given in this volume as the Author is acquainted with. 


To make the study less irksome, he has provided a plate for every page of letter-press'; 
that the ideas may not be disturbed, nor taken from the immediate subject, by a reference 
to figures in another part of the work. This he has avoided, except w here repetition takes 
place; anil when that occurs, the figure will be found with the explanation. He has com¬ 
prised the whole in one hundred and eleven pages. 


In this book, there is no attempt at any thing new, what may not have been treated on 
before, or with which every good seaman is not perfectly acquainted. It is intended solely 
as a Hey to tin* leading of Rigging and to Pi •actical Seamanship ; as an assistant to ren¬ 
der the knowledge of them easy and familiar to the young gentlemen of the Royal Navy, 
the Honorable East India Company’s service, and others who may not have been long 
enough at sea, or have had an opportunity of acquiring it by practice. If it possesses ibis 
utility, it has all the merit it can claim. 


Young officers sometimes feel a diffidence in soliciting information, either from a fear 
of exposing their ignorance, or fi om an idea that such a request may be treated with rid¬ 
icule. A reference, like a work of this nature, which can be consulted with privacy, will 
obviate the difficulty: it was not a secondary consideration in the prosecution of it. In 
the pursuit of this object, the Author has done his best. 


A 


11 


The plan of this work was laid many years ago; and subsequently, the manuscript was 
finished nearly as it now appears, for the advantage of a young gentleman, whose incli¬ 
nations at that time led him to the choice of a sea-faring life. 

Being seen by many gentlemen of known professional abilities, on both the eastern and 
western coasts ; who thought an explanation of this nature might be of service to young 
seamen in general; they presented the Author with testimonials of their good opinion, 
and wished him to give it publicity. It was afterwards, through the friendly zeal of Cap¬ 
tain Joshua Sydney Horton, of the Boyal Navy, introduced to the notice of several of¬ 
ficers of rank and experience; who, with a liberality worthy of their high stations, gave 
their signatures of approval. 

To the highly respectable individuals who have thus kindly sanctioned his attempt, 
he takes this opportunity of returning his most grateful acknowledgments. He feels him¬ 
self inadequate to express his obligations to those public bodies who have honored him 
with their countenance on this occasion—the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty , the 
Honorable the Court of Directors of the East India Company, and the Corporation of 
the Trinity House at Hull; having conferred their patronage in a manner equally flatter¬ 
ing to the Author’s feelings, and favorable to the interests of his publication. 


N. B. It is to be observed, that the Figures are not drawn to any scale, but are 
placed to answer the description independently; and that no more rigging, in general, is 
shown, than is necessary to explain the part described. The plates are engraved by Messrs. 
Butterworh, of Leeds; to whose perseverance and abilities the Author feels himself 
greatly indebted. 




PREFACE OF THE AMERICAN EDITOR. 


—© 00 - 

In preparing this book for the press, the American Editor has availed himself of every 
facility which this great sea-port could afford. 

It is some twenty-four years since, his vocation then being upon the deep, he purchased 
one of these books in England; and, although then behind the day in the improvements in 
the rigging of American ships, it was found to be a work of great utility. 

Since that time the changes in the mode of rigging, and in diminishing the unnecessary 
weight aloft, combining lightness with strength, have been greater than for the preceding hun¬ 
dred years, if a fair judgment can be formed from a comparison of the different works upon 
the subject. 

These improvements have been effected mainly, it is believed, by American ingenuity. 
Our shipmasters have been free to act, untrammelled by any control save that of their own 
good sense and experience ; and the result is, that we now can challenge the world to pro¬ 
duce so many symmetrically rigged and serviceable ships as exist in our mercantile marine. 

Let us give one instance:—on a voyage to India, in 1818, the ship H which we were 
on boartj^vas rigged in the common way ; the yards encumbered with straps, &c. In the 
course of the voyage every yard was stripped, gromets were worked to fit the yard arms; 
into them cringles were put, to which the brace blocks, lifts, &c., were spliced. This was 
the beginning of the present neat mode of fitting yards, as the same shipmaster, in building 
a new ship shortly afterwards, fitted her with the iron straps now in use. 

In the present work, several of the plates containing the old cumbrous mode of rigging 
have been retained, as there are ships now rigged in that way ; and it was thought best to 
leave them, that the learner, for whom this book is intended, might make a comparison. 

Much new matter has been introduced; such as the tables on rope, canvas, guns, 
and spars. 

The Editor neither seeks nor shuns criticism : if there is any of his part of the work to 
approve it will gratify him; if to condemn, he will mend it. Any suggestion from a sea¬ 
man, will be duly appreciated. 

New York, September, 1843. 


























0 






. 











■ 




CONTENTS 


RIGGING, SAILS, SPARS, AND GUNS. 


13 


A PAGE. 

Anchors, ...67—103 

B 

Backstay, —Top-mast—standing and breast,27—28 

Top-gallant,.46—47 

Bend, —Fisherman’s, "| 

Carrick s 

Hawser j. 

Sheet J 

Block ,—single, double, threefold, 

Top-sail sheet, 

Long tackle 
Shoe 
Sister 
Clew-line 
Snatch 

Monkey, \ 14 

Nine pin j. 

Snatch, ^ 

Top tackle, [ Ironbound . 16 

Cat, J 

Cheek. 26 

Top-sail sheet } 

Quarter >.34 

Clew garnet ) 

Seizing of ditto.53 

Jear,. 35 

Tye,.39—40 

Jack,. 47 

Bobstays, .21 

Boom irons, .33—64 

Boom, —Jib,.31 

Spanker,.44—45 

Lower studding-sail, 

Top-mast studding-sail, >.64 

Top gallant studding-sail, ) 

Bowlines, —Mizen,.42 

Fore, .52 

Fore top—top-gallant,.56 

leading of the,.57—5S 

Bowline, —driver,. 66 

Bowsprit, ..18—70 

Braces ,—leading of,.48—49 

Brace, —Top-mast studding-sail boom,.64 

Brails ,—Main top-mast stay-sail,.61 

Mizen stay-sail,.62 

Mizen...63 

Bull's eye, .14 

Bunt-lines, —Lower,.52—53 

Top-sail,.55—65 

Sprit-sail,.58 

Top-gallant,.56 


Buoy, 


68 


PAGE. 

.. 67 
..112 
..113 
..114 
.. 18 


Cables, .. 

Cables, Chain,. 

Tables of,. 

Canvas, . 

Cap, —Bowsprit,. 

Lower,.26 

Top-mast,.27 

Cat's paw, . 8 

Cat-harpins, ...25—26 

Catling the anchors, .69 

Cleats, .14—16 

Clews. . 51 

Clew-garnet, .52 

Clew-lines, .54—56 

Top-gallant,.56 

Sprit-sail,.58 

Sprit-sail top-sail,.59 

Clinch, .57—94 

Collars, —Stay,.20—30—31 


21 


Bobstay, 

Bowsprit shroud, 

Crane line, .44 

Cringles. . 51 

Cross trees. .27 

D 

Davits, . 69 

Dead eyes, .14—22—24 

Dolphin, . 11 

Dolphin striker, . 60 

44 


.... 61 


sail, } 
til, ) 


Down-hauler, —Peak 

Fore stay-sail, > 

Fore top-mast stay-sail ) 

Jib,. 

Main stay-sail, ) 

Main top-mast stay-sail, 

Middle stay-sail 
Main top-gallant stay-sail 
Mizen stay-sail 
Mizen top-mast stay-sail 

Mizen top-gallant stay-sail,_ 

Throat,. 66 

Driver, .66 

E 

Darings, .. 

Peak—Throat, .. 

Euphroe, .. 

F 

Fancy line, . 

Fids,. . 

Fishing the anchor, . 69 

Fore-sail, .51—52—53 

Futtock plates, .28 

Futtock shrouds, .28 

B 


62 


63 














































































VI 


Futtock stave, 


G 


PAGE. 

.. 25 


Gammonings ,.19—20 

Gaff, .43—44 

GasJcets, .11 

Bunt,.53 

Goring, .50 

Goose-neck, .44—64 

Grafting, . 10 

Gromet, .11 

For middle stay-sail stay,.61 

Guns, .115—116 

Guys, —Jib,.31—32 

Lower studding-sail boom,.64 

Mizen or spanker boom,.66 

H 


Halliards, —Top-sail, .38—39 

Top-gallant,.47 

Sprit-sail and sprit-sail 
top-sail, 

Peak—throat,. 43 

Fore stay-sail, 


Fore top-mast stay-sail 
Jib, 


J 


... 59 
... 60 

Main and main top-mast ^ 

and middle stay-sail, ). 

Main top-gallant, mizen and ) ^ 

mizen top-mast stay-sail, ) * ” 

Mizen top-gallant stay-sail,.63 

Lower studding-sail,.64 

Top-mast and top-gallant ^ ro 

studding-sails, ). 

Driver—spanker,.66 

Hearts, .14 

Hitch, —Half—clove, . 7 

Timber—rolling—magnus, > 

Blackwall, 3. 

Midshipman’s,. 9 

Horses, —Lower yards,.34 

Top-sail yards,.39 

Sprit-sail yard,.41 

Sprit-sail top-sail,.59 

Jib,.31 

I 


Inliauler, —Jib,.. 

Sprit-sail top-sail,. 

Jack-stay ,—Middle stay-sail,. 

Mizen or spanker,. 

Jears, —Lower,.. 

Jib, . 

Jumper, . 

K 

Knot ,—single wall, 
crowned, 

double wall, > 

double crowned, 

Mathew Walker’s, 


...60 

...59 

...61 

...66 

35—36 

...60 

...29 


5 


PAGE. 


Knot, —single Diamond, 
double Diamond, 
Sprit-sail sheet—stopper, 
Shroud, 

French shroud, 

Buoy rope—overhand, 
Figure of eight, 

Bow-line, single, 
Bow-line upon the bight, 
Reef, 

L 

Laniard, —reeving a,. 

Lacing, ... 

Lead, . 

Lengthening a rope, . 

Lifts, —Lower,. 

Top-sail,. 

Top-gallant,. 

Sprit-sail, .;. 

Sprit-sail top-sail,. 

Topping,. 

Ditto main boom,. 

M 


6 


7 


..24 

.63 

. 12 

. 12 

.35 

.39 

_47—48 

41—42—59 

.42 

44—45—64 
.66 


Main-sail, .66 

Marling spike, . 3 

Masts, —Lower,. 17 

Getting them in. 18 

a new one got in by the old one,.19 

Top and top-gallant,.26—45 

Mat, —wove,. 12 

wrought,. 11 

Mizen, .63 

Mousing ,—a stay. 10 

a hook,.40 

N 

Nave line, .38 

Netting ,—for the fore top-mast stay-sail,.25 

Nippering ,—a laniard,. 9 

the messenger,.109 

O 

Out-hauler, —Jib,.60 

Jib-boom,.31 

P 

Parral, —Top-sail yards,.40 

Sprit-sail yard,.41 

Top-gallant yards,.47 

Parcelling, . 3 

Pendents ,—Yard tackle—brace,.34 

Brace—top-sail yards,.39 

Reef tackle,.38—55—56 

Runner,.22 

Pointing, . 10 

Points. .53 

Puddings ,—For masts, &c.10 

Puddening ,—The rings of the anchors,.68 

R 

Rack, . 14 




























































































vii 


It PAGE. 

Racking turns, . 9 

Rat-lines ,.25 

Reef-bands, .51 

Ropes, . 2 

Bolt ropes ... 51 

Buoy rope, . 68 

Yard ropes, .53 

Rope-bands. .53 

Royals, .58 

Runner, . 16 

Rigging, —Lower—setting up,.24 

Top-mast—setting up,.28 

S 

Sails ,—General description of,.50 

Seizing ,—Rou nd—throat—eye. 9 

Selvagee, .12 

Servbig, . 3 

Service ,—Of cables,.67 

Sheep-shank, . 12 

Sheers ,—For the lower masts,. 17 

Sheets, —Fore,.52 

Top-sail,.................54—55—56 

Top-gallant,.56 

Leading of,. 

Sprit-sail,.58 

Sprit-sail top-sail, 

Fore stay-sail, >.59 

Fore top-mast stay-sail, ) 

Jib,.60 

Main stay-sail, I 

Main top-mast stay-sail, >.61 

Middle stay-sail, 


Main top-gallant stay-sail, 
Mizen and mizen top-mast 
stay-sails, 

Mizen top-gallant stay-sail, 
Mizen, 


Lower studding-sail,. 64 

Top-mast studding-sail, 

Top-gallant studding-sail, ) . 

Yard,. 64 

Driver,.66 

Sheet rope—spanker,.66 

Spanker boom,.45—44 

Shrouds, —Lower,.*.22 

Settingup ditto,.24 

Top-mast,.27 

Shrouds, —Setting up ditto,..28 

Top-gallant, and setting up,.46 

Bowsprit,.21 

Bentick,. 70 

Skin ,—Of a sail,.53 

Slabline, .52 

Slings, —Lower yard,.36—37 

Sprit-sail yard,.42 

Gaff,.43 

Spanker, .66 


S PAGE. 

Span ,—For lower lifts,.35 

Spunyarn, —Winches,. 2 

Sprit-sail, .5S 

Sprit-sail top-sail, . 59 

Stays, —Main—main top-mast,. 30 

Fore,.24 

Fore top-mast,. 28 

Top-gallant,.46 

Mizen,.31 

Ditto top-mast,.62 

Ditto top-gallant,.63 

Jib,.60 

Martingale,.60 

Stay-sails, —Fore—Fore top-mast,.59 

Main, main top-mast and middle,. 61 

Main top-gallant, mizen, mizen 

top-mast,.62 

Mizen top-gallant,. 63 

Stirrups, .34 

Strapping, . 15 

Straps —Lower slings,.35 

Stretcher, .25 

Studding-sails, —Lower,.64—65 

Top-mast, top-gallant.65 

T 

Tacks, —Fore,.52 

Ditto leading of,.57 

Fore stay-sail, fore top-mast stay-sail, 59 

Jib, . 60 

Main, main top-mast, and middle 

stay-sails,.61 

Main top-gallant, mizen and mizen top¬ 
mast stay-sail,. 62 

Mizen,.63 

Lower, top-mast and top-gallant stud¬ 
ding sail,.64—65 

Driver—spanker,. 66 

Tackles, —Gun, luff, runner,. 16 

Top,.26 

Top Burton,.28—64 

Tail block, . 15 

Thimble and hook, . 15 

Tops, .23 

Top-masts ,—Swaying up,. 26 

Top rope ,—For top-masts,.26 

For sprit-sailyard and sprit-sail top¬ 
sail yard,.42 

Top rope ,—For top-gallant masts,.45 

For top-gallant yards,.47 

Top-sail. .54—55—56 

Traveller, —Jib,.60 

Sprit-sail top-sail,.59 

Top-gallant stay,.58 

Tricing line ,—Middle stay-sail,. 61 

Trusses ,—V arious,.37—38 

Truck, .14—46 

Turk’s head, .*. 12 







































































































Vlll 


T 

Turning in , —A dead eye, &c, 

Tyes, —Top-sail,. 

Peak,. 

Throat, . i. 

Top-gallant,. 


Vangs, 


W 


Whip ,—And whip upon whip, 

Windlass —Spanish,. 

Worming .. 

Y 


Yards, —Lower, 


PAGE. 

...22 

39—40 

...43 

...44 

...47 

...42 

.... 16 
20—46 
... 3 


Y 

Yards, —Getting on board, &c, 

Top-sail,.. — 

Getting across,. 

Top-gallant,.. 

Getting ditto across,. 

Royal, . 

Sprit-sail,. 

Sprit-sail top-sail,— 
Getting them across, 

Cross jack,. 

Mizen, . 


31 to 38 
— 


SEAMANSHIP. 


PAGE. 

.33 

35—39—40 

_39—41 

.47 

.48 

.58 

32—41—42 

.42 

.42 

.38 

.66 


A PAGE. 

Taken a-back ..79 

Anchoring, .97—98— 11 1 

Single anchor,.100 

f to windward,. 101 

rp i- J to leeward,. 102 

1 ending < ditto wind change d ) 1Q4 

(_ three points, ) 

Breaking the sheer,.103 

Wind right across ( Sheering to windward, . .104 
the tide. ( to leeward, .... 105 

Anchor, —Backing of,.108 

Anchors ,—Letting all go,. 10 S 

B 


Backstay, —Travelling,. 85 

Beam ends , —A ship laid on her,. 99 

Bitts, .109 

Box-hauling, .83—85 

Boxing off, .78 

C 

Cables, —Bending the,.94 

Casting, .110 

Compass, . 75 

Club-hauling, . 95 

D 

Down-haul tackle, .85 


Drifting, —With the tide against the wind,.98—99 
E 

Elements of seamanship and effect of the sails 
before and abaft the centre of rotation, 72-73-74 
F 

Flatting in, .78 

G 


Griping ,—Causes of,_ 

Getting under way, . 

H 

Hawse ,—Keeping a clear, 

Clearing the,_ 

Heaving to, . 

Horses, —Moused,. 

J 


Jigger- 


. .74—84 
110—111 

.106 

.107 

.94 

.83 

.109 


L PAGE. 

Lee, —Brought by the,. 91 


Lying to ,—Under different sails,.89 

M 

Messenger, .109 

Missing stays, . 93 

Mooring, .105 

N 

Nippers, .109 

Q 

Quick saver, . 88 

R 

Reefing. .83—86 

Reefs ,—Shaking out,. 92 

Ring ropes, .109 

Rudder ,—Effect of,.71 

S 

Sails ,—Setting top-mast studding-sails,.80 

Ditto lower studding-sails,.81 

Taking in studding-sails,.82—83 

Setting and taking in top-gallant sails,. 84 

Taking in the jib,.84 

ditto main top-mast stay-sail,.85 

ditto top-sail,. 86 

Reefed top-sails over reefed courses, . 87 

Unbending the main-sail,. 88 

Scudding, .90 

Sounding, . 94—95 

T 

Tacking , ..76—77—92 

Tackle, —Rolling, . 86 

W 

Waring or Veering, . 79 

Under courses,.87 

Under a main-sail,. 88 

By the fore stay-sail,.S 9 

Under bare poles,. 90 

Short round,. 93 

Y 

Yards, —Top-gallant, sending down/. 86 

Sprit-sail, getting fore and aft,. 88 






















































































THE 


YOUNG SEA OFFICER’S SHEET ANCHOR; 


OR, 


Si Ktn to Rigging aui> Seamanship. 


RIGGING. 

The Rigging of a Ship consists of a quantity of ropes, or cordage, of various dimensions, for the 
support of the masts and yards. Those which are fixed and stationary, such as shrouds, stays, and 
back-stays, are termed Standing Rigging; but those which reeve through blocks, or sheave-holes, are 
denominated Running Rigging —such as Halliards, Braces, Clew-lines, Bunt-lines, &c. &c. These are 
occasionally hauled upon, or let go, for the purpose of working the ship. 

Ropes are a combination of several threads of hemp, twisted together by means of a wheel in the 
rope-walk. These threads are called Rope-yarns, and the size of the rope in diameter, will be accord¬ 
ing to the number of yarns contained in it. 

A proportion of yarns (covered with tar) are first twisted together. This is called a Strand; three 
or more of which being twisted together, form the rope: and according to the number of these strands, 
it is said to be either Hawser-laid , Shroud-laid , or Cable-laid. 


1 


ROPES—SPUN-YARN WINCHES. 


— 9 ©©— 

A HAWSER-LAID ROPE, Fig. 1, 

Is composed of three single strands, each containing an equal quantity of yarns, and is laid right-handed, 
or what is termed with the sun. 

A SHROUD-LAID ROPE, Fig. 2, 

Consists of four strands of an equal number of yarns, and is also laid with the sun. 

A CABLE-LAID ROPE, Fig„ 3, 

Is divided into nine strands of an equal number of yarns : these nine strands being again laid into three , 
by twisting three of the small strands into one. It is laid left-handed, or against the sun. 

SPUN-YARN, 

Is made as follows :—A piece of junk or old cable is untwisted, the yarns drawn out, knotted together, 
and rolled up in balls round the hand.. Three or four of these balls are laid upon deck, and an end 
out of each being taken, they are coiled in fakes upon a grating, or other thing, (to keep the tar from the 
deck,) and upon every three or four fakes tar is rubbed by a brush. These are fastened by their 
ends to a kind of reel called a Spun-yarn Winch, Fig. 4, and a half-hitch is taken over one of the 
spokes, E. The man who spins the yarn, retires to a convenient distance, and then, with a brisk 
motion, (holding the yarns in his hands), he whirls the winch round against the sun. When it is spun 
sufficiently, he rubs it. backwards and forwards, with a piece of old canvas, which he keeps in his hand, 
reels it on the winch,, takes another half-hitch round the spoke E, and proceeds- as before. When the 
reel is full, it is taken off and balled. 

There is a Winch, Fig. 5, on a much better construction, used in the Merchant Service, with which 
two boys may spin a considerable quantity of spun-yarn in twelve hours. A crutch (1) is stepped into 
a mortise of the windlass (2). A wooden spindle goes through the holes in'the upper part of the 
crutch, having a small wheel or truck fixed to one end. That part of the spindle which lies between 
the two arms of the crutch, is four square (3). The part without is rounded, and in the end is fixed 
a peg (4). A piece of line, such as small Rat-line (5), or Sennit (88), well chalked, is taken with a turn 
round the squared part (3). The rope-yarns are fixed to the peg (4), on the rounded part: one boy 
walks aft with them, rubbing them with a piece of old canvas, whilst the other (having part of the rat¬ 
line in each hand) (5), pulls briskly on the under part, (a), then slackens it, restoring it again to its for¬ 
mer position, by hauling on the upper one. 

Thus the wheel and spindle are kept in .a continual whirl, which renders this method very expeditious ; 
for the boy may walk the length of a large ship with the yarns, before there is occasion to reel them up. 
When it is sufficiently spun, the bight is laid over a hook fastened by a laniard to one of the fore 
shrouds, opposite the rounded part, of the spindle, on which it is reeled by the rat-line stuff. The bight 
is then taken over the peg again, and they proceed as before.. 






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3 


WORMING—SERVING-SPLICING. 


Spun-yarn is used for Worming, Servitig, Seizing, &c. 

WORMING A ROPE, 

Is filling up the divisions between the strands by passing spumyarn, &c. along them, Fig. 6 . This is 
done, in order to strengthen it, for various purposes; and- to render its surface smooth/ for parcelling. 

PARCELLING A ROPE, 

Is wrapping old canvas round it, well tarred, which prepares it for serving, and. secures it from being 
injured by rain, w^ater lodging, between the parts of the service when worn. 

THE SERVICE, 

Is clapped on by a wooden mallet,. Fig. 7, made for the purpose. It is round at the top, but has a 
groove cut in the head of it to receive the rope, that the turns of the spun-yarn may be passed with 
ease and despatch. It is done thus: The rope is first bowsed hand-taught by a tackle, then wormed. 
The end of the spun-yarn for the service is laid upon the rope, and two or three turns passed round 
the rope and over it, hauling them very taught. The mallet is laid with its groove upon the rope, 
Fig. 8 ; a turn of the spun-yarn is taken round the rope and the head of the mallet, close to the last 
turn which was laid by hand: another is passed in the same manner, and a third also on the fore part of 
the mallet, leading up. round the handle (i), which the rigger holds in his hand. The service is 
always passed against the lay of the rope, so that as the latter stretches, the tension of the former is not 
much decreased. A boy holds the ball of spun-yarn (k), at some distance from the man who is serv¬ 
ing, and passes it round, as he turns the mallet, by which he is not retarded in his operation. The end 
is put through the three or four last turns of the service, and hauled taught. 




SPLICING. 

—qo®— 

Ropes are joined together for different purposes, by uniting their strands in particular forms, which 
is termed Splicing. A splice is made by opening, and separating the strands of a rope, and thrusting 
them through the others which are not unlaid.. The instruments used on this occasion, are Fids and 
Marling Spikes. 


A FID; 

Is made according to the size of the rope it is meant to open, and is tapered gradually from one end to 
the other, Fig. 9. It is commonly made of harcf wood',, such as Brazil, Lignum Vitae, &c. and some¬ 
times of iron : when of the latter, it has an eye in the upper end like Fig. 10 . 

A MARLING-SPIKE, 

Is an iron pin of a similar mould, on the upper end of which, is raised a knob, called the Head, Fig. 11. 





4 


SPLICING. 


A SHORT SPLICE. 

To Splice the two ends of a rope together, proceed thus :—Unlay the strands for a convenient 
length; then take an end in each hand, place them one within the other, (Fig. 12), and draw them close. 
Hold the Strands (a, b, c) and the end of the rope (d) fast in the left hand, or if the rope be large, 
stop them down with a rope-yarn: then take the middle end (1), pass it over the strand (a), and, 
having opened it with the thumb, or a marling-spike, (Fig. A), push it through under the strand (c), and 
haul it taught. Perform the same operation with the other ends, by leading them over the first next to 
them, and through under the second, on both sides: the splice will then appear like Fig. 13; but in order 
to render it more secure, the work must be repeated: leading the ends over the third and through the 
fourth; or the ends may be untwisted, scraped down with a knife, tapered, marled, and served over 
with spun-yarn. 

AN EYE SPLICE, Fig. 14, (a), 

Is made by opening the end of a rope, and laying the strands (e, f, g) at any distance upon the standing 
part, forming the Collar or Eye (a). The end (h), Fig. B, is pushed through the strand next to it, 
(having previously opened it with a marling-spike); the end (i) is taken over the same strand, and 
through the second; and the end (k) through the third, on the other side. 

THE LONG SPLICE, Fig. 15. 

To make this splice, unlay the ends of two ropes, to a convenient distance, and place them one within 
the other as for the short splice: unlay one strand for a considerable length, and fill up the intervals 
which it leaves with the opposite strand next to it. For example, the strand (1) being unlaid for a 
particular length, is followed by the space which it leaves by the strand (2). The strand (3) being un¬ 
twisted to the left hand, is followed by the strand (4) in the same manner. The two middle strands, 
(5 and 6), Fig. C, are split; an over-hand knot is cast on the two opposite halves, and the ends lead 
over the next strand and through the second, as the whole strands were in the short splice: the other 
two halves are cut off. Sometimes the whole strands are hitched, then split, and the half strands put 
through in the same manner; but the surface is not so smooth, and the former method seems sufficient. 
When the strand (2) is laid up to the strand (1), they are divided, knotted, and. the ends cut off in the 
same manner; and so with 3 and 4. This splice is used for lengthening a rope which reeves through 
a block, or sheave-hole, the shape of it being scarcely altered. 

A FLEMISH EYE, Fig. 17. 

Take the end of a rope, and unlay one strand (7), Fig. 16, to a certain distance, and form the eye, 
Fig. 17, by placing the two strands (8) along the standing part of the rope, filling up the intervals 
(marked by the shade) with the strand (7), till it returns and lies under the eye with the strands (8). 
The ends are scraped down, tapered, marled, and served over with spun-yarn. 

AN ARTIFICIAL, OR SPINDLE EYE, Fig. 18. 

Unlay the end of a rope, then open the strands, separating every yam: take a piece of wood or 
rope the size of the intended eye, and hitch the yarns round it, as described by the figure: scrape them 
down, marl, parcel, and serve them. This makes a neat eye for the end of a stay. The yarns are 
here drawn greatly out of proportion, in order to render the figure distinct. 















































I 

I 































5 


KNOTTING. 

—qo©— 

To make the CUT or BIGHT-SPLICE, Fig. 19. 

Cut a rope in two, and, according to the size of the collar or eye you mean to form, lay the end of 
one rope upon the standing part of the other, and push the ends through, between the strands, in the 
same manner as for the eye-splice, shown in the former page. This forms a •collar or eye (u) in the 
bight of the rope. It is used for pendents, jib guys, &c. 

To make a WALL-KNOT, Fig. 21. 

Unlay the end of a rope, Fig. 20, and with the strand (1) form a bight, holding it down on the side 
of the rope at (2): pass the end of the next (3) round the strand (1): the end of the strand (4) round 
the strand (3), and through the bight which was made at first by the strand (1): haul them rather taught, 
and the knot will then appear like Fig. 21. 

To CROWN this Knot, Fig. 23. 

Lay one of the ends over the top of the knot, Fig. 22, which call the first (a), lay the second (b) over 
it, and the third (c) over (b), and through the bight of (a): haul them taught, and the knot with the 
crown will appear like Fig. 23, which is drawn open, in order to render it more clear. This is called a 
Single Wall , and Single Crown. 

To DOUBLE-WALL this Knot, Fig. 24. 

Take one of the ends of the single crown, Fig. 23, suppose the end (b), bring it underneath the part 
of the first walling next to it, and push it up through the same bight (d): perform this operation with the 
other strands, pushing them up through two bights, and the knot will appear like Fig. 24, having a 
double wall and single crown. 

To DOUBLE-CROWN the same Knot, Fig. 25. 

Lay the strands by the sides of those in the single crown, pushing them through the same bights in 
the single crown, and down through the double walling: it will then be like Fig. 25, viz. single walled, 
single crowned, double walled, and double crowned. This is sometimes called a Tack Knot, and is also 
used for topsail sheets. The first walling must always be made against the lay of the rope: the parts 
will then lay fair for the double crown ; so that if Fig. 20 had been a hawser-laid rope, or with the sun , the 
strands (1, 3, 4) would have been passed the contrary way. The ends are scraped down, tapered, 
marled, and served with spun-yarn. 

MATTHEW WALKER’S KNOT, Fig. 27, 

Is made by separating the strands of a rope, Fig. 26, taking the end (1) round the rope, and through its 
own bight: the end (2) underneath, through the bight of the first, and through its own bight, and the 
end (3) underneath, through the bights of the strands (1 and 2), and through its own bight. Haul them 
taught, and they form the knot, Fig. 27. The ends are cut off. This is a handsome knot for the end of 
a laniard. 

N. B. The knots are in general drawn very slack and open, that the parts may be more plainly de¬ 
monstrated : on which account they have not so neat an appearance in the plates as when they are hauled 
taught. More bights and turns are also shown in the drawings than can be seen at one view in the 
knots without turning them backwards and forwards. 2 




6 


KNOTTING. 

—< 30 ^— 

To MAKE a SINGLE DIAMOND KNOT, Fig. 29. 

Unlay the end of a hawser-laid rope for a considerable length, Fig. 28, and with the strands 
form three bights down its side, holding them fast. Put the end of strand (1) over strand (2), and 
through the bight of strand (3), as in the figure: then put the strand (2) over strand (3), and 
through the bight formed by the strand (1): and the end of (3) over (1), and through the bight 
of (2). Haul these taught, lay the rope up again, and the knot will appear like Fig. 29. This knot 
is used for the side ropes, jib guys, bell ropes, &c. 

To make A DOUBLE DIAMOND KNOT, for the same purpose, Fig. 30. 

With the strands opened out again, follow the lead of the single knot through two single bights, the 
ends coming out at the top of the knot, and lead the last strand through two double bights. Lay the rope 
up again as before, to where the next knot is to be made, and it will appear like Fig. 30. 

To make A SPRIT-SAIL SHEET KNOT, Fig. 33. 

Unlay two ends of a rope, and place the two parts which were unlaid, together, Fig. 31. Make a 
bight with the strand (1). Wall the six strands together, against the lay of the rope (which being hawser- 
laid must be done from the right hand to the left) exactly in the same manner that the single walling was 
made with three: putting the second over the first, the third over the second, the fourth over the the third, 
the fifth over the fourth, the sixth over the fifth, and through the bight which was made by the first: haul 
them rather taught, and the single walling will appear like Fig. 32 ; then haul taught. It must be then 
crowned, Fig. 33, by taking the two strands which lie most conveniently (5 and 2), across the top of the 
walling : passing the other strands (1, 3, 4, 6) alternately over, and under those two, hauling them taught: 
the crown will be exactly similiar to the Figure. Tt may be then double walled, by passing the strands, 
(2, 1, 6, &c.) under the wallings on the left of them, and through the same bights, when the ends will 
come up for the second crowning, which is done by following the lead of the single crown, and pushing 
the ends down through the walling, as before, with three strands. This knot, when double-walled, and 
crowned, is often used as a stopper knot, in the Merchant Service. 

A STOPPER KNOT, Fig. 34, 

Is made by single walling and double walling (as described page 5), without crowning , a three stranded 
rope, against the lay, and stopping the ends together as in the figure. The ends, if very short, are whip¬ 
ped without being stopped. 

To make a SHROUD KNOT, Fig. 35. 

Unlay the ends of two ropes, Fig 36, placing them one within the other, drawing them close as for 
splicing: then single-wall the ends of one rope against the lay (i. e. from left to right, if the rope be cable- 
laid, as in the figure), round the standing part of the other, Fig. 35. The ends are opened out, tapered, 
marled down, and served with spun-yarn. This knot is used when a shroud is either shot or carried 
away. 

To MAKE A FRENCH SHROUD KNOT, Fig. 37. 

Place the ends of two ropes as before, Fig. 36, drawing them close. Lay the ends (1, 2, 3), back 
upon their own part (b), single-wall the ends (4, 5, 6) round the bights of the other three, and the 
standing part (b), and it will appear like Fig. 37. The ends are tapered, &c. as before. This knot is 
much snugger, and equally secure as the other. 





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HITCHING—KNOTTING. 


To make a BUOY-ROPE KNOT ,Fig. 39. 

Unlay the strands of a cable-laid rope, and also one of the small strands out of each large one, laying 
the large ones again as before, and leaving the small ones out, like Fig. 38—then single and double wall 
the small strands (as directed for the stopper knot, page 6) round the rope, Fig. 39, worm them along 
the divisions, and stop their ends with spun-yarn (d). 

HITCHING A ROPE, Fig.. 40, 

Is performed thus:—Pass the end of a rope (b) round the standing part; bring it up through the bight, 
and seize it to the standing part at (d). This is called a Half-hitch. Two of these, one above the other, 
Fig. 41, is called a Clove-hitch. 

To make an OVER-HAND KNOT,. Fig. 42. 

Pass the end of a rope (b) over the standing part (a) and through the bight above (c). 

To make an OVER-HAND, or FIGURE-OF-EIGHT KNOT, Fig. 43. 

Take the end of a rope (a) round the standing part (b), under its own part (d), and through the 
bight (c). 


To make a BOW-LINE KNOT, Fig. 46. 

Take the end of a rope (a), Fig. 44, in the right hand, and the standing part (b) inthe left,.laying the 
end over the standing part; with the left hand turn a bight of the standing part over it, Fig. 45 ; lead the 
end round the standing part, through the bight again, and it will appear like Fig. 46. 

To make a BOW-LINE KNOT upon the BIGHT of a ROPE, Fig. 48. 

Take the bight (a) in one hand, Fig. 47, and the standing parts (b) in the other. Throw a kink or 
bight over the bight (a) with the standing parts, the same as for the single knot. Take the bight (a) 
round the parts (b), and over the large bights (e e), bringing it up again: it will then be complete, 
Fig. 48. 

To make a RUNNING BOW-LINE KNOT, Fig. 50.. 

Take the end of a rope, Fig. 49,. round the standing part (b) and through the bight (c): make the 
single bow-line knot upon the part (d), and it is done,. Fig. 50. 

To make a REEF-KNOT, Fig. 52. 

Make an over-hand knot as before directed, Fig. 51, round a yard or spar: bring the end (a) (being 
the next towards you) over to the left , and (b) to the right: take (a) round (b), draw them taught, and it 
is done, Fig. 52. 




8 


HITCHING—BENDING. 


To make a TIMBER-HITCH, Fig. 53. 

Take the end part of a rope (a) round a spar or timber-head: lead it under and over the standing 
part (b): pass several turns round its own part (c), and it is done. 

To make a ROLLING-HITCH, Fig. 54. 

With the end of a rope (a) take two round turns over a spar, &c. at (c): pass two half hitches (see 
page 7th) round the standing part (b), and it is finished: the end may be stopped to the standing part. 

To make a MAGNUS-HITCH, Fig. 56. 

Pass two round turns with the end of a rope (a) over a spar, Fig. 55; then, bringing it before the 
standing part, pass it again under the spar, and up through the bight which it made, Fig. 56, the end 
part being jammed by the bight (d). 

To make BLACKWALL-HITCH, Fig. 58. 

Form a bight (c), Fig. 57, by putting the end (a) across under the standing part (b). Put this bight 
over the hook of a tackle, Fig. 58, letting the part (d) rest upon it, and the part (a) be jammed by the 
standing part at the cross. This is used with a laniard, when setting up the shrouds. 

To M*ake a CAT’S-PAW, for the same purpose, Fig. 60. 

Lay the end of a rope (a), Fig. 59, over the standing part (b), forming the bight (e), take the side of 
the bight (c) in the right hand, and the side (d) in the left; turn them over from you three times, and 
there will be a bight in each hand (c d), Fig. 60. Through these put the hook of a tackle. 

To MAKE A SHEET BEND, Fig. 61. 

Pass the end of a rope (a) through the bight of another rope (b), then round both parts of the rope 
(c d), and down through its own bight. 

To make a FISHERMAN’S BEND, Fig. 62. 

With the end part of a rope take two turns (c) round a spar; a half-hitch (see page 7) round the 
standing part (b), and under the turns (c); then another half-hitch round the standing part (b). This is 
used for bending the studding-sail halliards to the yard. 

To make a CARRICK BEND, Fig. 64. 

Form a bight (c), Fig. 63, bylaying the end of a rope (a) across the upper surface of its standing 
part (b). Lay the end (e) of another rope (d) under (a and b); then following the lead of the dotted 
line, pass it over (a), through the bight, under (d), and up through the bight again, Fig. 64: (c) there 
representing the end (e) in the other figure. 

HAWSERS are sometimes bent together thus, Fig. 65: The hawser has a half-hitch cast on it, a 
throat seizing (see the next page) clapped on the standing part (b) and a round one at (a). Another hawser 
is reeved through the bight of this, hitched in the same manner, and seized to the standing part (d e). 

And frequently the ends of two ropes (a c), Fig. 66, are laid together: a throat seizing (see the next 
page) is clapped on at (e), the end (a) is turned back upon the standing part (b), and the standing part 
(d) brought back to (c); another throat seizing is put on each, as at (f), Fig. 67, and a round seizing near 
the end at (g): the same security is placed on the other side. 







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9 




HITCHING—SEIZING. 

—qO©— 

To make a MIDSHIPMAN’S HITCH, Fig. 69. 

With the end of a rope (a), Fig. 63, take a half-hitch round the standing part (b); take another turn 
through the same bight, jamming it between the parts of the hitch—when hauled taught, it will appear like 
Fig. 69. The end may be taken round the standing part, or stopped to it. It is thus a tail-tackle is clapped 
•on a rope, or fall, to augment the purchase. 


SEIZING a rope, is binding the two parts together with spun-yarn, house-line, mar-line, or small 
cordage. 


To MAKE a ROUND SEIZING, Fig. 73. 

Splice an eye in the end of a seizing, Fig. 70, and taking the other end round both parts of the rope, 
reeve it through the eye—pass a couple of turns—haul them taught by hand; then make a kind of cat’s- 
paw on the seizing, Fig. 71, by taking a turn with the seizing by the marling-spike, laying the end part 
over the standing part, pushing the marling-spike down through the bight, under the standing part, and 
-up through the bight again. Heave these two turns well taught, by the heaver or marling-spike: 
pass the rest, and bind them in the same manner, making six, eight, or ten turns, according to the size of 
the rope; then push the end through the last turn, Fig. 72. Over these, pass five, seven, or nine more, 
(which are termed Riders ), always laying one less above than below. These are not to be hove too 
taught, that those underneath may not be separated. The end is now pushed up through the seizing, 
and two cross turns, Fig. 73, are taken betwixt the two parts of the rope and round the seizing, (lead¬ 
ing the end through the last turn), and hove well taught. If the seizing be small cordage, a WALL 
KNOT (see page 5) is cast on the end; but if spun-yarn, an over-hand knot. When this seizing is 
clapped on the two ends of a rope, it is called an END SEIZING. If upon the bight, as in the figure, 
•an EYE SEIZING—and if between the two others, a MIDDLE SEIZING. 


A THROAT SEIZING, Fig 75, 

Is passed with riding turns, but not crossed. A bight is formed, Fig. 74, by laying the end (a) over the 
standing part (b). The seizing is then clapped on ; the end put through the last turn of the riders, and 
knotted. The end part of the rope, Fig. 75, is turned up and fastened to the standing part, as in the 
figure, with a round seizing. This is used for turning in dead-eyes, hearts, blocks, or thimbles. 

STOPPING, is fastening two parts of a rope together, like a round seizing, but not crossed. 

NIPPERING, is making fast the two parts of a laniard or tackle-fall, whilst the purchase is fleeted. 
The turns are taken cross-ways, Fig. 76, between the parts, to jam them; and frequently a round turn 
is taken over the laniard, before every cross: these are called racking turns. Riders are passed over 
these, and the ends fastened with a REEF KNOT (see page 7) if they be to remain. 

The neatest method of securing the ends of ropes from untwisting, is by POINTING. 

3 




10 


POINTING—GRAFTING—MOUSE. 

—©o©— 

To POINT A ROPE, Figs. 7,9 and C. 

Unlay the end of a rope as for splicing, and stop it. Take out as many yarns as are necessary, and 
make knittles: (this is done by taking separate parts of the yarns when split, and twisting them). Comb 
the rest down with a knife, Fig. 77. Make two knittles out of every yarn which is left: lay half the 
knittles down upon the scraped part, and the other, back upon the rope, Fig. 78. Take a length of 
twine, which call the Warp , and pass three turns very taught, jamming them with a hitch at (a). Pro¬ 
ceed, laying the knittles backwards and forwards as before, and passing the warp. The ends may be 
whipped and'snaked with twine, or the knittles hitched over the warp, and hauled taught. The upper 
seizing must also be snaked, Fig. 79. The pointing will appear like Fig. C.: a small becket is often 
worked at the end, when the rope is large (g). If the tapered part be too weak for pointing, a piece of 
stick may be put in, proceeding as before.. 

SNAKING, is for. the better securing of a seizing, which is passed round the single part of a rope, 
and therefore cannot be crossed. It. is done by taking the end'parts under and over the lower and 
upper turns of the seizing, Fig. 80. 

GRAFTING A ROPE, Fig. 82, 

Is done by unlaying the two ends of a rope, placing the strands one within the other, as for splicing. 
Fig. D, and stopping them at the joining. The yarns are then opened out, split, and made into knittles, 
as before, for pointing. The knittles of the lower part (a), Fig. 81, are divided, the warp passed as be¬ 
fore, and pointed over the rope. Proceed with the knittles of the upper part in the same manner, snaking 
the seizing at each end, Fig. 82. Straps of- blocks are often grafted instead of the short splice, parti¬ 
cularly on the quarter-deck ; this is by no means so secure as the splice, for if the pointing be worn by wet 
and friction, the strap may give way—it is therefore better, that the straps of blocks which are to be 
pointed for neatness, and without a splioe, should be made Selvagee fashion, (see Selvagee, page 12, Fig. 
96), all the parts of which bear an equal strain, and-if the pointing give way, the strap will hold. 

N. B. The Knittles in the plates are much;too -large,, and only a few represented, .to avoid confusion. 

A MOUSE for a STAY, Fig. 83, 

Is generally raised with spun-yarn, taking a number of turns, heaving them well taught, jamming them 
with rope-yarns laid under and over, alternately, and then parcelled and pointed. It is, however, found 
by practice in the Merchant Service, that the parcelling alone is sufficient, W’hich is tapered and marled 
down, according to the shape required. Fig. 83, represents the mouse made with parcelling. Knittles 
for pointing, made of Hambro’ line, &c. according to the size of the stay, are middled, laid with their 
bights just above the head of the mouse at (b), and the warp passed round, proceeding as before-men¬ 
tioned impointing. As they rise on the mouse, more knittles are added ; and when got past the thickest 
part they are decreased. They are frequently worked a little distance below the mouse, on the stay, 
according to fancy: the service of the stay is taken over their ends, to secure them—the warp is house¬ 
line, mar-line, &c. 

PUDDINGS for the YARDS or MASTS, Fig. 84, 

Are made by splicing an eye (see page 4) in each end of a piece of rope, according to the size intended, 
then serving it over with spun-yarn, increasing the turns from each end towards the middle; which 
tapering, gives it the shape of the figure. If it be for a mast, it is pointed over, for neatness—a laniard 
or lashing is spliced into one of.the eyes. 






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11 


GASKETS—MATS, &c. 


A DOLPHIN, Fig. 85, 

Is made in the same manner that the pudding was begun, having an eye in each end ; but no service raised. 
It is wormed, and parcelled, to make the surface even, and then pointed over, Fig. 85. In one end is 
spliced a lashing, or laniard, and when the two ends are lashed round the mast, &c., the lashing is pass¬ 
ed cross-ways, over and under one eye, then over and under the other, and the end part afterwards 
taken in a circular form round the crossing, Fig. 86. This is called a Rose-lashing. 

Foxes for gaskets, &c. are made by taking a number of rope-yarns, from three upwards, according to 
the size intended, and twisting them on the knee, rubbing them well backwards and forwards with a piece 
of canvas .—Spanish foxes are made by twisting single rope-yarns in the same manner. They are then 
made into a kind of coil over the thumbs, and twisted (that they may hang clear, and not impede the 
operation) like those represented in the figure for the Mat. 

GASKETS, Fig. 88, 

Are made by taking three or four foxes, according to the size, middling them over a pump-bolt, &c. and 
plaiting the three or four parts together for the length of the eye, Fig. 87. The plaiting is formed by 
bringing the outside fox on each side alternately over to the middle. The outside one is laid with the 
right hand, and the remainder held and steadied with the left. When this is done, take the other parts 
(b), (having shifted the eye part so that it lies over the bolt, Fig. S8), and work the whole together in the 
same manner; add another fox at (a), and work it for a convenient length, then diminish it towards the 
end, taking out a fox at proper intervals. When finished, one end must be laid up, the others plaited', 
and then the one hauled through. 

POINTS for reefing, sails are plaited with foxes. They are sometimes of one piece, or single , and 
when this is the case, the plaiting is begun in the middle with seven or more foxes, worked in the same 
manner, and tapered, by reducing the foxes towards each end. Over-hand knots are cast on, when 
reeved through the gromets in the sails, and jammed taught by reeving one end through the hole of a 
sheave, taking hold of the end, and pushing the sheave with the feet. They are more commonly made 
what is called Rope-band fashion, in two parts, having an eye in one end of each leg like the gasket, 
Fig. 88; but this eye is worked long and small, that a turn may be taken in it before the end of the other 
leg is put through, which makes it double, (as will be mentioned page 53). One fox is turned up as be¬ 
fore; but as they are continually beating against the sail,.the ends are whipped with twine, and stuck 
through the whole with a sail needle. 

SENNIT is made by plaiting rope-yarns in< the same manner that the foxes were worked for the 
gasket. 

To MAKE A WROUGHT MAT, Fig. 89. 

A piece of Hambro’ line, &c. is stretched in an horizontal direction, as in the Figure : and foxes ac¬ 
cording to the breadth intended, are hung over it. The fox nearest the left hand (c) has a turn twisted 
in its two parts, and one part given to the man opposite, (two people being employed). The next fox 
(d), has also a turn twisted in its two parts, and one part given back : the remaining end is twisted round 
the first which was given back, (as in the Figure), and that again round its own part. Proceeding in this 
manner with the other foxes, the mat will appear in the working, as described in the plate, until the 
whole of the foxes are put in. The two to the left (h) are always twisted together, till those to the right 
hand are worked to them, in order to keep in the turns each time. At the bottom, another piece of Hambro’ 
line is put in: the ends of the foxes split, and hitched round it, then put through the other twists with a 
marling-spike. To render the surface of these mats softer, strands of old rope are cut in pieces of about 
three inches in length, pushed through the divisions of the twists, and then opened out. These yarns 
are called THRUMBS. 

A GROMET, Fig. 91, 

Is made by unlaying a strand of a rope, Fig. 90, placing one part over the other, and with the lt>ng end 
(f) following the lay till it forms the ring, Fig. 91, casting an over-hand knot (Fig. 51, page 7) on the 
two ends, and if necessary, splitting and pushing them between the strands, as in the long splice., 




12 


MAT—TURK’S-HE AD—LEAD—LENGTHENING A ROPE. 

To make a WOVE MAT. 

A flat piece of wood called a Sword (d), Fig. 92, is used. This is put alternately between the parts 
of the spun-yarn, or sennit, stretched over two pieces of Hambro’ line, as in the Figure. The warp of 
spun-yarn (e) is placed through the parts which the sword has opened, and jammed by it, close to the 
head: a piece of spun-yarn (i) is put slack through the same divisions at the opposite end, and left there. 
The sword is taken out, passed under and over the other parts, as before, and each end of the warp 
passed and jammed taught. The piece of spun-yarn (i) which was left at the opposite end, is now lifted 
up, and brings the parts as they were first divided by the sword: the warp is passed as before, and the 
work continued until the whole is completed. 

A TURK’S-HEAD, Fig. 95, 

Is worked with log-line, &c. as an ornament to bell or man-ropes, and is made thus : take a clove-hitch 
(see page 7) with the line round the rope, Fig. 93: bring the bight (d) under the bight (g), and take the 
end up through it: it will then appear like Fig. 94—make another cross with the bights, and take the 
end down, after which follow the lead: and it will form a kind of crown or turban, Fig. 95. 

A SELVAGEE, Fig. 96, 

Is made by laying rope-yarns in a bight, round two timber-heads, &c. and marling them down with spun- 
yarn. Large ones of spun-yarn are sometimes made for getting in the lower masts, as will be mention¬ 
ed hereafter. Straps for blocks are very neat made in this manner, particularly leading blocks on the 
shrouds for the running rigging, which are sometimes worked with Spanish foxes. 

A SHEEP SHANK, Fig. 98, 

Is made for shortening a back-stay, &c.—a half-hitch is taken with the standing parts (a) round the 
bights (b), when it will appear like the Figure. 

The HAND-LEAD, Fig. 98, 

Is a plummet of 7, 8, or 9 pounds weight. It is shaped like the Figure; having a hole in the upper ex¬ 
tremity, through which is reeved a piece of leather, with a hole cut in both ends; in the end of the lead¬ 
line there is a long eye spliced. The eye is reeved through both holes in the leather, and taken over the 
lead, being thus secured. This line is about thirty fathoms in length, and marked as follows :—At one 
fathom from the upper part of the lead, a piece of leather with one end projecting—at two fathoms, 
leather with two ends—at three fathoms, three ends—at five fathoms, a white rag —at seven fathoms, a 
red rag —at ten , leather with a hole in it—at fifteen, a small strand is put in—at twenty , a strand with two 
knots on it. 

The DEEP-SEA LEAD, 

Is shaped like the hand-lead, but is larger, weighing from twenty to thirty pounds, for ordinary service. 
The line is marked similar to the hand-lead line, up to twenty fathoms; then, for every five fathoms, a 
small strand is let in the line, and the tens are, with two knots for twenty, three for thirty, and so on, by 
putting in small strands with knots tied on them. See Fig. 98, showing a thirty fathom mark. 

To LENGTHEN a ROPE by an ADDITIONAL STRAND. 

Cut the strand at the bottom of the plate, Fig. 100, and unlay it as far as (b), and there cut the strand 
(b)—unlay those two strands the same length, Fig. 99 : and cut the strand (c) and (d). Draw the two 
parts of the rope asunder to the proper distance, laying the end part of the longest strand (d) on one side 
over the shortest on the other (e). Introduce the additional strand (e), lay it on at (d) to (e), and then 
follow up the lay with the two longest strands to (a). The ends are knotted, and pushed through, as in 
the long splice. This splice is used for lengthening the head and foot ropes of sails, when intending to 
put in another cloth. If it be lengthened two feet, the strands must be cut three feet apart: and the ad¬ 
ditional strand must be upwards of nine feet in length. 




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13 


BLOCKS. 

— 9 *©©— 

BLOCKS are variously shaped, according to their use and situation in the ship. A block consists of 
a shell, sheave, and pin: and from the number of these sheaves it derives its name, viz. a block with one 
sheave is called single; with two, double; with three, treble; and with four, four-fold. 

The SHELL of a block is made of ash or elm, Fig. 101, and has one or two scores or notches cut 
at each end (a), according to its size: these scores are for the purpose of admitting a strap, which goes 
round the block; and in its centre is a hole for a pin (b). The shell is hollow, and in the inside is placed 
a solid wheel, called a SHEAVE, Fig. 102, made of lignum vitae, brass, or iron. In the centre of this 
sheave is a hole for a pin or axis, on which it turns. This is frequently strengthened, by letting in a 
piece of brass, called a coak, or bush. Round the circumference of the sheave is a groove, that the rope 
which goes over it may play with ease. The sheave is placed in the shell; and the pin (c) is put through 
both the shell and sheave. 

The SINGLE BLOCK appears like Fig. 103,—the DOUBLE BLOCK like Fig. 104, and the 
TREBLE BLOCK like Fig. 105. 

TOPSAIL SHEET BLOCKS, Fig. 106, 

Have a shoulder or projection, at the lower end, to prevent the sheets, or ropes which reeve through 
them, from jamming. 

LONG TACKLE BLOCKS, Fig. 107, 

Are made like two single blocks; the one large, the other small; the large one, being above the small one. 

SHOE, or LEG-AND-FALL BLOCKS, Fig. 108, 

Are also made like two single blocks; but the sheave of the upper one lies in a contrary direction to 
that of the lower one. 


SNATCH BLOCKS, Fig. 109, 

Have one side of the shell open above the sheave; by which the bight of a rope may be placed in 
and taken out at pleasure, without the necessity of reeving the end through. A hole is bored through 
the upper end, to admit a lashing. Small ones are used for hauling in the deep-sea lead; and large ones, 
iron-bound, for receiving the bight of a hawser, when warping the ship. (See Iron-bound Blocks, 
page 16.) 

SISTER BLOCKS, Fig. 110, 

Have two sheave-holes, one above the other; but frequently, in the Merchant Service, only a round hole 
in the lower block, instead of the sheave, like the Figure. A score (g) is cut between the blocks, and one 
at each end of them, for seizings. They are hollowed out on each side of the shell, for a shroud to lie in. 

CLEW-LINE BLOCKS, Fig. Ill, 

Are strap-bound—that is, they have a shoulder on each side of the cheek, next to the end, where the 
rope reeves. In these shoulders are holes, bored vertically (h), to receive a strap. 


4 




14 


BLOCKS, &c. 


— Q&&- 


A MONKEY BLOCK, Fig. 112, 

Is made with a saddle to nail upon the topsail yards in Merchant Ships, for the bunt-lines to reeve through. 
Sometimes it has a swivel above the saddle, to permit the block to turn, when used for a leech-line. 

A DEAD EYE, Fig. 113, 

Is a large circular piece of wood, having a groove in its circumference, for a shroud to lie in. The three 
holes, or eyes, are for a laniard to reeve through. 

A HEART, Fig. 114, 

Is a block of wood, with a large hole in the centre; at the bottom of which are four or five scores: round 
the outside a groove is cut, to admit a rope,.called a Stay, & a 

A HEART for a COLLAR, Fig. 115, 

Is sometimes open at the lower end : opposite to which, the laniard is passed. It has a groove on each 
side (k), for the seizing to lie in. A heart, Fig. 116, is often used, in the Merchant Service, with a round 
hole (1), for the heel of the jib boom to rest in ; which is bevelled for that purpose. The bottom of the 
heart (m) is also bevelled, according to the steeve of the bowsprit. 

A NINE-PIN BLOCK, Fig. 117, 

Is shaped something like the pin from which it derives its name; and is placed in the breast-work, for 
the running rigging, which leads down by the mast,, to reeve through. 

A TRUCK, Fig. 118, 

Is rounded, having a hole bored vertically for a rope to reeve through. In the middle is a score (n), for 
a seizing; and down the back, a groove for a shroud to lie in. 


A BULL’S EYE, Fig. 119, 

Is a kind of wooden thimble, with a hole in the centre, and a groove in the circumference. 


A RACK, Fig. 120, 

Is a piece of wood, through the holes of which belaying pins are stuck'—at the back part, are several 
scores for the shrouds to lie in ; to which it is seized. 


An EUPHROE, Fig. 121, 

Is a long piece of wood, having a number of holes, through which the crow-foot for the awning, &c. is 
reeved. 


CLEATS, 

Are pieces of wood for various purposes, as represented by the different figures. Fig. 122^e‘t5alled a 
SLING CL It AT. One of these is nailed'on each side of the slings dh the yards. Figy-123, a STOP 
CLEAT. Such are nailed on the bowsprit, for the gammoning, collars ,1^.; and sometimes, on the 
yard arms. Fig. 124, a BELA1ING CLEAT. This is nailed or bolted Sithe side, for the purpose of 
belaying the running-rigging to. Fig. 125, a MAST CLEAT. This is fade with a score, to admit a 
seizing; a long hole in the centre for an under seizing: and two round holes, by which the seizing may be 
crossed. A COMB CLEAT, Fig. 126, is merely, used for leading a rope through; or for keeping it in 
its place.—For a Shroud Cleat, see page 16. 












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15 


STRAPPING. 

—— 

A STRAP for a BLOCK, Fig. 127, 

Is served over with spun-yarn, and the two ends are spliced together with a short splice, (see page 4), 
the scores being well tarred. This splice, Fig. 128, (a) is placed over the end of the block, opposite to 
where the rope reeves. Close under the block, a round seizing (see page 9) is clapped on with riding- 
turns, and crossed. 

An IRON THIMBLE, with a hook, Fig. 129, is frequently strapped to blocks. When this is done, 
the strap is reeved through the eye of the hook, and over the groove of the thimble (d).—The splice is 
then made, placed as above, and the thimble seizing is clapped on, between the thimble and the block, 
Fig. 130. 

A TAIL BLOCK, Fig. 131, 

Is strapped with an eye-splice, (see page 4). This splice, which lies under the block, having the ends 
combed, and marled down, is served over with spun-yarn, and the end of the rope whipped ; but more 
frequently a stop (a) is put on at some distance from the splice. The tail is then unlaid, and the strands 
plaited, as mentioned for gaskets, (page 11); and often, instead of this, the yarns, when opened out, are 
marled down like a selvagee, (see page 12). 

A BLOCK strapped with a LONG and SHORT LEG, Fig. 132, 

Is seized in the eye, or bight, with a round seizing (see page 9): the short leg (b) has an eye spliced in 
the end of it; the other leg is left long, to pass round a yard, &c. reeve through the eye (b), and be 
hitched or seized to its part. Blocks are also strapped in the same manner, with two short legs, having 
an eye in each, for a seizing to pass through. 

A CLUE-LINE BLOCK, Fig. 133; 

Is strapped in the last mentioned manner: the bight of the strap is put over the head of the block, and 
the ends are reeved through the shoulder on each side: the seizing is clapped on as before. 

A THREE, or FOUR-FOLD BLOCK, Fig. 134, 

Is double strapped, having two scores in the shell, for that purpose: the strap is wormed, parcelled, and 
served, (sometimes only wormed and served), and spliced together; then being doubled, the splice and 
the other bight are put over the block. The seizing is clapped on both parts as before, with this only 
difference, that it is crossed both ways, through the double parts of the strap. 

These blocks being so unwieldy, require a purchase to heave the strap out, and a wedge, or large 
fid, to fix it in. When this block is strapped on board Merchant Ships, it is generally done in a vertical 
direction; reeving a rope through one of the sheave-holes, and making it fast to a ring-bolt, &c.; then 
hooking a stay tackle (c), Fig. 135, to the two' bights of the strap, and setting it taught. A frapping, or 
temporary seizing, is next put on above the block, and hove well taught by a heaver. A large fid (e) 
is driven in betwixt the head and the frapping, and a stop of spun-yarn (d) (which is too low down in 
the plate) is clapped on: being reeved through the upper part of the sheave-hole on each side, and nip- 
pered round the strap with a heaver; which keeps it in its place. The fid is then knocked out, the 
frapping taken off, and the seizing clapped on as before. In Men of War, and East Indiamen, when 
these blocks are strapped, they use a chock, instead of a fid, and a wedge is driven in between the 
chock and the block. The nipper (d) is taken round both the strap and block, and hove taught with 
a heaver. 




16 


BLOCKS—TACKLES, &c. 


Blocks strapped with iron, are either single, double or treble. 

A TOP BLOCK, Fig. 136, 

Is a single iron-bound block, and is used for reeving the top rope pendent through, when swaying up 
the topmasts. 

The UPPER TOP-TACKLE BLOCK is double or treble, and strapped similarly to the top block. 

The LOWER TOP-TACKLE BLOCK, Fig. B, 

Is either double or treble, and is also iron-bound ; having a swivel in the iron strap (g), that the turns 
may be taken out of the top-tackle fall, if twisted, by slueing the block round. 

A SHROUD CLEAT, Fig. F, 

Omitted in page 14, is shaped like the figure, having scores for the seizings (i), which are snaked, (see 
page 10), and a groove in the part where the shroud lies. 

A TACKLE, 

Is a purchase, formed by reeving a rope through two or more blocks, to render easy the hoisting of any 
weight. The smallest purchase of this kind, is made by reeving a rope through a single block, Fig. 
138. This is called a Whip. 

A GUN-TACKLE PURCHASE, Fig. 139, 

Is made by reeving a rope through a single block (a); then through another single block (d), and mak¬ 
ing the end (c) fast to the strap of the single block (a), (c) is called the standing part, because it is 

fixed ; (e) the running part; and (f) the fall, or part hauled upon. 

If a rope be reeved through a single block, Fig. 140, it is called a Whip , as before mentioned: and if 
the block of another w T hip (i) be strapped to the fall of that, it is called Whip upon Whip. 

A LUFF TACKLE, Fig. 141, 

Consists of a double and single block, each strapped with a hook and thimble. The fall (b) is reeved 
through one of the sheave-holes of the double block (a), then through the single one, through the double 
one again, and the end makes fast with a sheet-bend (see page 8) to a becket (c), spliced round the strap 
of the single block (d). 

If these blocks be strapped with tails, instead of hooks and thimbles, the purchase is then called a 
Tail, or Jigger Tackle. 


A RUNNER TACKLE, Fig. 142, 

Is the same purchase as a luff tackle, applied to a runner, which is a large rope (c) reeved through a 
single block (a), hooked to a thimble, in the end of the pendent (b). 

A SNATCH BLOCK, Fig. G, 

Is frequently iron-bound, with a swivel hook (a). This is used for placing the bight of a hawser or large 
rope in, when warping the ship, &c.; and to prevent the bight from slipping out, if the rope be suddenly 
slackened, an iron clasp is fitted in the strap which goes over the snatch, and is fastened by a toggle 
bolt (b). 






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17 


GETTING IN THE LOWER MASTS. 

Ships have three lower masts, and the bowsprit, which may be also termed a mast. These are of 
various lengths and diameters, according to the size of the vessel. 

The first of these is called the Fore-mast , from its situation, being placed in the fore part of the 
ship. The second and largest, the Main-mast, being near the centre; and the third, the Mizen-mast , 
which is nearest to the stern. The bowsprit projects over the stem, and rises upwards in a sloping di¬ 
rection, which is termed steering . 

Ships of war, and large ships, have their masts formed of different pieces. They are called Made- 
masts. 

Fig. 143, represents one of these masts; (a) the iron hoops; (d) the hoops of the fish ; (c) the tressle- 
trees, with scores to admit the cross-trees. The tressle-trees are strong pieces of oak, bolted together, 
and to the mast-head. They rest on the cheeks, or hounds of the mast, which project out, and are fur¬ 
ther supported by two large brackets on each side, called Bibbs (b). 

SHEERS, Fig. 144, 

For getting in the lower masts and bowsprit, are made of two large spars: a strong lashing secures them 
by their heads (a). Over the head of the sheers, at the lashing, a large three or four-fold block (b), ac¬ 
cording to the size of the largest mast to be got in, is secured, connecting itself by a fall to another 
block (c). At the head of the sheers are four ropes, called Guys ; two leading forwards, and two aft (d). 
Also at the upper end of one spar, a girt-line block (e) Is made fast, and its line reeved through it. This 
is to hoist up a man, in case of emergency. At each heel of the sheers there is a tail-tackle (f), leading 
aft: and two others (g) are overhauled forwards. 

Previously to the sheers being raised, two planks (1, 2), long enough to lie over three beams, which 
are shored below, are placed upon deck on each side, for their heels to rest on. 

The lashing of the sheers is passed like a throat-seizing, not too taught; and then the heels of the sheers 
are drawn asunder. They are laid over the taffarel (h), Fig. 145 ; and (if the ship do not carry a poop,) 
to make them rise easier, a spar is laid athwart, over the fife-rails (i). The lower purchase block is then 
taken forwards (the fall (k) being overhauled) to the breast-hook, or the ring-bolt in the stem, for the 
main-stay. The fall being taken through a leading block, is brought to the capstem, and hove upon. 
The cross spar (i) cants the sheers, and their heels are prevented from flying forwards by the tail-tackles. 

When the sheers are up, they are moved forwards or aft by the guys and heel-ropes. 

The guys are hauled taught, and the block cast off from the breast-hook. 

Notk.—A t the regular Naval establishments, permanent sheers are built at the end of the dock, and 
ships are hauled alongside the dock when they are to be masted. 5 




18 


GETTING IN THE MASTS—BOWSPRIT. 

—qO^— 

The mizen-mast is first got in: for which purpose the sheers are placed before the partners, or hole 
(d), which the mast is to enter; and the lower purchase block is lashed on a little above the centre of 
gravity of the mast, that it may have a cant upwards. But in preference to this lashing, a stout selvagee, 
made of spun-yarn, should be taken round the mast (a), Fig. 146, the bight put through the strap of the 
lower purchase block, and. a toggle clapped in*. This, from its pliability, will be sure to hold, and is 
quickly done. 

Two girt-line blocks, one on each side of the mast-head (b), are lashed, to be ready to get the rigging 
over-head, and to hoist men on. the tressle-trees> in order to place it properly.. The end of the girt-line, 
which was made fast to one of the sheer-heads (c), is taken round the mast under, the bibbs. This is 
called a Back Rope. 

When the mast is high enough, this back rope is hauled upon, which places it in a vertical direction, 
over the partners, or hole (d). Some hands on deck also assist at the heel of the mast, to make it enter. 
The purchase fall is then eased; and, when fairly entered, they lower away: the people in the hold 
placing the tenon (e) in the heel into a mortise of a large piece of oak timber, called a Step , which is 
bolted on the upper part of the kelson. 

When the mizen-mast is fixed, the sheers are moved forwards by the guys and heel ropes, as seen 
in Fig. 144, and placed before the partners of the MAIN-MAST. This, and the fore-mast , are got in 
and stepped in the same manner. 


THE BOWSPRIT, Fig. 147, 

Has its part within board, to the heel, eight square: and from thence, rounded all the way to the cap.— 
The cap (A) is a block of oak, iron-bound, with two holes; one round, the other square : it is driven on 
the outer end of the bowsprit, the square hole going over the tenon. In this cap are several iron bolts, 
the use of which will be mentioned hereafter. 

Within the cap, four stoutpiecesofoak or locust (locust is the best) are bolted, two on each side, called 
Bees (e) and (e 1); through these, in modern rigged vessels, the fore-top-mast and fore-stays are rove, 
(f) is the outer bowsprit shroud dead-eye, and (g) the outer bob-stay dead-eye they are fastened to the 
bowsprit with an iron strap. About one half out, is a piece of wood, called a Saddle (h); and when 
ships carry a sprit-sail yard, (which is very seldom done in the Merchant Service), cleats are put on for 
the parral. The gammoning (i) is now an iron strap, which sets up with a nut and screw. (See (a) 158.) 

When the bowsprit steps on deck, it is slung like the lower masts;, but, if it step between decks, 
then the after guys of the sheers are eased, so that their heads may project, forwards. 

To get the bowsprit in by the fore-yard, see page 70, Fig. 372. 





































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19 


GETTING IN THE MASTS. 


TO GET IN A NEW MAST BY THE OLD ONE, WITHOUT SHEERS, Fig. 148. 

If a cutter or sloop have a damaged mast, and be SO' circumstanced that she cannot procure spars 
(of sufficient dimensions) to hoist in a new one by, strip all the rigging* except the runner pendents (n) 
off the damaged mast: take the runners and tackles to the chains, setting them taught: two fore and aft 
guys (m) to the mast-head, and also a girt-line block (k). Secure the mast above the partners, with fore 
and aft tackles (p) and heel-ropes, from side to side (s). Lash the purchase-block (o) to the mast-head. 
Whilst this is doing, let the deck be well shored below. When all is secured, saw the old mast off 
close to the deck, .wedging it as it is sawn and being cut through, move it aft, by the guys and heel- 
ropes, as before. Drive a large bolt into the head of the stump (q) remaining in.the hold; and (the 
lower purchase-block (r) being lashed to it) hoist it out. The new mast is then got in by the purchase, 
as before;-and when stepped, the upper purchase block (o) may be shifted to the new mast-head; the 
lower one, toggled to the selvagee (see page 18) on the old mast; and the runners, guys, &c. being cast 
off, the old mast may be hoisted out by the new one. 

The lower masts and bowsprit being stepped, the ship is ready for rigging: and as the masts for¬ 
wards depend greatly on the latter , it must be first secured. 

In order to keep the bowsprit down firm, and to resist the great force of the stays which support the 
masts forwards, it is confined to its situation by the gammoning, bob-stays, and shrouds. 

The gammoning, when of rope, (in Merchant Ships it is of iron, see (i), Fig. 147), is passed with eight, 
ten, or twelve turns, (according to the size of the ship), over the bowsprit, and through a hole in the cut¬ 
water (m). The end is passed through the hole, over the bowsprit, and either clinched or spliced with 
an eye round the standing part: another turn is taken over the bowsprit, through the hole, and over the 
bowsprit again. The bight of the gammoning is put through the eye in the end of a runner (n), and 
either toggled or cat’s-pawed to a hook at the end of it. This runner reeves through a tail-block, made 
fast (or a block lashed) to the hole for the bob-stay (o), in the cutwater, and leads through the hawse- 
hole (p). The double block of a luff-tackle (q) is hooked to the runner within board, and the single 
block, being hooked to one of the ring-bolts, the fall is taken to the capstern. In men of war, there are 
two gammonings, an outer and inner, Fig. 149. 


The gammoning is then hove well taught; and when sufficiently so, nrppered with spun-yarn to the 
standing part, by passing some turns round both parts, and a few alternately round one and the other. 
These are called Racking Turns , (see page 9, Fig. 76). The luff-tackle (q) is then eased off, the toggle 
taken out, and one or two more turns passed, and hove taught in the same manner; and so on with 
the rest. 

When the regular number of turns is taken, the end part is passed round the whole of them, and hove 
taught as before, till the whole is expended. These last are called framing turns (d); by which great 
power is gained in taughtening the other. The end is stopped to the standing, part. 




20 


GAMMONINGS—STAY-COLLARS, &c. 

— &&Q — 

The GAMMONING, Fig. 150, 

Is but seldom used. A large strap has its two ends spliced together, wormed, parcelled, served, and 
then doubled. One bight of the strap reeves through a large bolt (well leathered) in the top of the cut¬ 
water (q), and in each bight is seized a small heart (r, s). The bight (r) goes over the bowsprit, and 
is secured to the bight (s) by a laniard (w). This laniard is set. up by a Spanish windlass, thus :—a 
spar (t) is laid over the bowsprit and the cathead, or bows; and the laniard being taken round it, is cat’s- 
pawed to the heaver (v), (like the seizing to the marling-spike, Fig. 71, page 9), and hove round, till 
sufficiently taught: the parts are nippered, as in the former page; fresh turns are taken; and when as 
many as requisite are passed, the laniard (w) and the bights (x) are frapped together as before. 

When the ship has no cutwater, Fig. 151, the gammoning is taken through a ring-bolt (a), driven 
into the fore part of the stem. It is set up with a Spanish windlass, as before, and as many frapping 
turns taken as will conveniently lie. 

When there is no ring-bolt, Fig. 152, the gammoning is taken through a hole in the stem ; but in this 
case no frapping turns can be taken ; therefore, as it is set up, each turn is nailed down to the bowsprit, 
having a piece of leather under the head of every nail. It is commonly set up with a Spanish windlass 
on each side. The gammoning being middled, is nailed down; one turn is taken before, and another 
abaft: it is set up on both sides, and nailed, till the whole is expended. 

Many ships have a projecting knee, with a Griffin’s head, &c. carved on (c). The bowsprit is then 
secured by two gammonings, as in the Figure : one through the hole in the stem (b), and the other round 
the knee (c). If a space were left between the knee and the bowsprit, and the hole in the stem made lower 
down, these gammonings might be frapped. Many masters object to the bowsprit being confined down 
on the knee, thinking it better that it should have a little play. 

The collars for the fore-stays, bob-stays, and bowsprit shrouds, are next got on; for which purpose 
two spars are lashed together, in the form of a pair of sheers, and the ends of these spars rest one on 
each side over the bows, Fig. .153. The other ends, which are lashed together, are slung under the bow¬ 
sprit, just below the cleats (e), which are nailed on to stop the collars from coming in: and upon these 
spars is placed a grating (f) for the men to stand on. 

When the ship carries a FORE SPRING-STAY, its collar is put on next to the cleats; but when 
there is no spring-stay, the fore-stay collar is placed there, and fitted to the heart thus: the collar is 
wormed, parcelled, and served, the two ends spliced together, and doubled, Fig. 154; after which, the 
splice and the bight next to it (h) are laid over the heart (i), Fig. 155, and the parts then lie down the 
sides in the groove. It is secured to the heart by a seizing passed round the heart and collar, two scores 
being made for that purpose (k). As this round seizing cannot be crossed, it is snaked, as mentioned 
page 10, Fig. 80. A lashing is spliced round one of the bights (1): the heart is laid on the upper side of 
the bowsprit, and the bights hanging down on each side, the lashing is passed through them alternately, 
underneath the bowsprit, by the men on the grating, and hove taught by a heaver. 

Note. —All this applies to the old cumbersome mode of rigging ships, called the old school, which 
is nearly extinct. 























































































21 


BOB-STAYS. 

— 0 ^ 9 — 

The BOB-STAY COLLAR, or STRAP, Fig. 156, 

When not made of iron as in the plate, is wormed, parcelled, and served, having an eye spliced in each 
end. A dead-eye is placed in the bight, and a round seizing (see page 9) is clapped on. This lies under¬ 
neath the bowsprit, and the lashing is passed through the eyes over the upper part of it. In large ves¬ 
sels, there are two of these, one placed before the other. 

BOWSPRIT SHROUD COLLARS, 

Of which there are two, are lashed over the bowsprit in the same manner, with a heart or dead-eye, one 
lying on each side ; but more frequently in merchant ships the hearts are both seized into one collar, Fig. 
157, and the lashing is passed through the eyes over the bowsprit. The ends of all the lashings are 
whipped, and seized, down to the standing part. In the plate, Fig. 158, the collars are iron straps, which 
is the mode of all modern ships. 


The BOB-STAYS, Fig. 158, 

In vessels, are of chain or rope: when of rope, they are wormed, parcelled and served, led through 
a dead-eye, which is fitted through iron plates, (r) let into the stem and cutwater, and have the two ends 
spliced together. A dead-eye (m) is seized in with a round seizing (see page 9), the splice laying on the 
upper side of it. They are set up thus: A rope called a Laniard, (n) is spliced to the heart or dead-eye, 
under the bowsprit, passing alternately through the heart or dead-eye (m), in the bob-stay, and the one 
it is spliced to: the double block of a luff-tackle (o) is hooked to a cat’s-paw or Black-wall hitch (see Figs. 
57 and 59, page 8) on the laniard: the single block (p) hooks to a selvagee round the knight-head. This 
is bowsed taught, and another luff-tackle (q) being hooked in the same manner to the fall of this, it is set 
up. The laniard is then nippered with rope-yarn (see page 9), and the tackles taken off. This pur¬ 
chase of the tackles is called Luff-upon-Luff. The end is taken through between the seizing and dead- 
eye (m): one turn is taken round the single part of the bob-stay, the remaining turns round both parts, 
and the end stopped ; or if it be long, it may be frapped round the parts of the laniard (n). When of chain, 
a dead-eye is fitted to the upper part, and it is set up as above. 

Vessels which have no figure head, such as coasters, whose cat-heads are in general very forward, 
have their bob-stays led through a hole in the stem, like Fig. 159. They have a double block turned into 
the collar (a), and a single one (b) is seized in the bob-stay. The reason why they have not dead-eyes, is 
because, when the anchor is hove up, the bob-stay lying so near the bows, the stock is apt to get foul of 
them. They are therefore let go occasionally, and the bights of the bob-stay are triced up to the bow¬ 
sprit, as in the Figure. This is the case with the English colliers. 

The BOWSPRIT SHROUD, Fig. 160, or 160 (d), 

Has a hook and thimble (r) spliced into one end and a heart or dead-eye (s) into the other. It is served 
over. The lower end (r) is hooked to an eye-bolt in the bends forward, and the upper one (s) is set up 
with a laniard, to the heart or dead-eye in the collar, with luff-upon-luff, like the bob-stay. 

6 




22 


RUNNER PENDENTS—SHROUDS. 


The fore-mast may now be fitted with its standing rigging, which consists of runner pendents, shrouds, 
stays, backstays, cat-harpins, and futtock shrouds. 

The rigging is got over the mast-head by the girt-lines which are reeved through blocks (t), Fig. 163, 
lashed on each side of it, as mentioned before, when getting in the masts. 

The RUNNER PENDENTS, Figs. 161 and 162, 

Are first got over-head.—They are originally of one piece, and they have an eye with a thimble spliced 
in each end (v), Fig. 161. They are cut in the middle, and then joined by the cut-splice, (see page 5, 
Fig. 19), forming a collar (w), to fit the mast-head. In the Merchant Service, the runner blocks are often 
spliced into each end of the runner, Fig. 162. They are wormed, parcelled, and served. 

The end of the girt-line is made fast round the pendents: they are hoisted up, and the men on the 
tressle-trees place the collar over the head of the mast: thus they hang on each side (y), Fig. 163. They 
rest on a bolster; which is a piece of wood, rounded and nailed on the tressle-tree on each side, close to 
the mast, and strong canvas, tarred, having oakum underneath, is nailed on them; which prevents the 
rigging from chafing. Sometimes, in the Merchant Service, the bolsters are not nailed on, but they are 
merely stopped with spun-yarn. 

SHROUDS sometimes are cable-laid ; but they are now generally shroud or hawser-laid. (See page 
2). They are taken round two fids, or short posts (a, c, Fig. 164). 

In fixing the FORE RIGGING, warp only two pairs the proper length : (i. e.) from the tressle-tree 
on the opposite side to the partners: then stretch them hand-taught. At one end, lay them one without 
the other: at the other end, one upon the other. Drive in another fid (b) at one foot distance, to lengthen 
the next two pairs: warp them as before, and so proceed, according to the number of pairs wanted ; 
driving in a fid at the same distance. Cut them asunder at (a), where the bights are laid one upon the 
other. Thus the bights at c, d, &c. will be the middle of a pair of shrouds. 

Sometimes the fids, for increasing the length between each pair, are driven in at the end (a) where 
the bights lie one upon the other. 

MAIN RIGGING is warped in the same manner; but four or five inches distance between each pair 
will be equal to one foot in the fore-rigging; because the sheer of the ship leaves the fore shrouds; but it 
meets the main ones. 

Each pair is then taken its whole length, Fig. 165. A bight is made at one end (d), and it is toggled 
through the strap of the double block of a tackle : the other end (e) is made fast to a strap round a fid, 
with a sheet-bend, (see Fig. 61, page 8). The fall of the tackle (f), being taken to a windlass (g), it is 
bowsed a little taught, and wormed ; then hove well on the stretch. The foremost pair are served from 
the middle (h) to the end (e): and on the other side, one-fourth towards the end (d): the rest are served 
one-fourth from the middle (h), on each side. Many seamen object to. worming the shrouds, as the worm¬ 
ing when stretched is apt to lodge rain water, which may rot them. 

They are now cast off, and an eye is made in each pair to fit the mast-head, by clapping on a round 
seizing (see page 9), which will lie just below the bolster on the tressle-trees, the middle (h), Fig. 166, 
making the upper part of the eye. The seizing for the eye of the second pair of shrouds is clapped on 
about its own breadth below the first; the third below the second, &c. By this, they will hang clear of 
each other, and they will not chafe. 

Near the end of each pair of shrouds, a dead-eye is turned in, with a throat-seizing, (see page 9): 
left-handed, if cable-laid, , right-handed, if hawser-laid. In the latter case, the ends of the shrouds will 
lie forwards , on the larboard side , and aft , on the starboard side. Fig. 167 represents a dead-eye on the star¬ 
board side, and the inner side of the dead-eye. The end part of the shroud (i) is stopped to the stand¬ 
ing part (k), by two round seizings (see page 9): the end is whipped, and a piece of canvas, tarred, 
is put over it, called a cap (1). 





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23 


TOPS. 


The girt-lines are over-hauled from the mast-head, as before, for the shrouds, which are got over in 
pairs. First, a pair on the starboard, then a pair on the larboard side, alternately, until the whole are 
completed. 

If there be an odd shroud on each side, it is hitched round the mast-head, and seized; but in the 
Merchant Service, the odd shrouds (which are called Swiflers) are generally the foremost; and they have 
the runner pendents in the same piece, an eye being seized for the mast-head, as before, Fig. 168, (m) 
the pendent, and (n) the foremost shroud. 

The SPRING-STAY and FORE-STAY, are next got over-head.—The spring-stay, when carried, is 
sometimes put over the mast-head before the fore-stay; but more frequently the fore-stay is put over, 
and the collar of the spring-stay is taken up through the collar of the other, and then put over the mast¬ 
head ; so that the collar lies over , and the stay under the fore-stay. The spring-stay lies under, for the 
convenience of bending a fore-stay sail to it. 

The fore-stay is generally cable-laid, and has an eye worked in one end when made ; but if not, a 
Flemish or spindle-eye (see page 4) is made, combed out, marled, parcelled, and served ; (the eye is com¬ 
monly pointed over). The service is continued for one-third the length of the stay, and it is stretched 
for that purpose as the shrouds were. At that distance, the mouse is commonly raised (see page 10). 
The end of the stay is reeved through the eye of the mouse, Fig. 169, and the collar (o) formed by this 
is put over the mast-head, like the shrouds, only that the stay hangs before the mast, and the shrouds on 
each side. The pointing of the mouse is sometimes continued for a little distance down the stay, for 
neatness; but in this case, a piece of parcelling should be placed just below the mouse, that the knittles 
may not be chafed by the eye. 

The better and most usual way of rigging a fore-stay, is, the stay is fitted witb an> eye and seizing, 
Fig. 168, and both parts are passed through the inner bees of the bowsprit, (e 1), Fig. 147, led through a 
heart secured to the outer part of the knight-heads, set up and seized on its own part (y 1), Fig. 203, or 
passed around the bowsprit, and set with two eyes round' the mast-head. 

The TOPS are next got over.—They are in the shape of D’s, framed on cross-trees, which fit into a 
score, left in the upper part of the tressle-trees, and are for the purpose of spreading the top-mast shrouds. 

The tops, in men of war, and large vessels, are decked over, Fig. 170, and have a square hole (w) 
in the middle, called Lubber's Hole: on each side of this, and in its front, are holes bored (1) for the girt- 
lines to reeve through, and be stopped. In the rim of the top are mortises for the futtock plates (q): and 
sometimes within them holes for the swivels. In the after rim of the top there are holes for the netting 
stantions. 

Sometimes the tops are made what is called Grating fashioned , like Fig. 171, having three or four 
cross-trees let into the tressle trees, when madb. Sometimes they are made with light battens, like Fig. 
172: these have no lubber’s hole: but they have a scuttle on each side (x), with a kind of trap-door, 
which a boy can without difficulty push up with his head. The battened tops are framed on the tressle- 
trees, and bolted to them, and the mast is got in with the top on, by the sheers, as before mentioned. 

When the decked top is to be got over the mast-head, the girt-lines (a), Fig. 173, are over-bauledi 
down abaft the mast, taken underneath the top, and reeved through the small hole (1), down through 
lubber’s hole, and the end is hitched round the standing part.. They are then stopped with spun-yarn to 
the holes in the fore part of the top. One of the girt-lines from the main-mast head is hitched through a 
hole in the after part of the top. 

The fore-top is then swayed up by the fore girt-lines (a), and guyed clear of the tressle-trees, by the 
main one. When high enough, the stops at the fore part of the top are cut; and then, by hoisting on 
fore girt-lines (a), it will fall over the mast-head : the girt-lines are lowered upon, the top is fixed by the 
men at the mast-head, and beat down by a top mall. 




24 


SETTING UP THE LOWER RIGGING. 

—e©©— 

In staying the mast, the stay is rove through the dead-eye or collar (f), on the bowsprit, Fig. 174. A sel- 
vagee is clapped on the stay at (d), and the double block of a luff-tackle (e) is hooked to it. The stay being 
leathered and well smeared with grease, to make it pass freely, the single block of the luff-tackle is 
attached to the end of the stay by a strap: the single block of another luff-tackle (g) is hooked to the 
fall of that; and the double block (h) to a selvagee or pair of slings, round the bowsprit (i); the fall 
leading in on the forecastle. The stay is then set up by the purchase, and when sufficiently so, the parts 
are nippered with racking turns (see page 9) as before. The end is then secured to its own part, by 
two or three round seizings. In men of war, the lower masts are generally bowsed forwards by the 
runners and tackles, before they are stayed. 


The SHROUDS are next set up. The laniard has a Matthew Walker’s knot, or two single wall 
knots, one under the other, (see page 5), cast on the end: which is placed the reverse way to what the 
end of the shroud is : thus in cable-laid shrouds, the ends on the larboard side lie aft; on the starboard 
side forwards; in which case the knots will lie in the foremost holes in the dead-eye on the larboard 
side; and in the aftermost, on the starboard side. Fig. 176 represents the dead-eyes and laniard of a 
cable-laid shroud on the larboard side, the end of the shroud (k) laying aft, and the knot of the laniard 
in the foremost hole (1) of the upper dead-eye. The lower dead-eye is iron-bound, and fixed to the ship’s 
side by the chain plate. The knot being cast on the end, the laniard is reeved through the foremost hole 
(inside) of the upper dead-eye (1), then through the foremost hole (outside) of the lower dead-eye; next 
through the middle hole of the upper dead-eye, returning through the middle hole of the lower one; up 
again through the aftermost hole of the upper dead eye, and through the same in the lower one. The 
end (m) is then ready for hooking the tackle to. 


The shroud is set up thus, Fig. 177 : A selvagee is fixed on the shroud at (n); the single block of a 
luff-tackle is hooked to it, and the double block to a cat’s-paw or a Black-wall hitch (see page 8) on the 
laniard (o). The runner-tackle is over-hauled, and the single block (q) hooked to the fall of the luff- 
tackle : its fall reeves through a leading block (q), hooked or strapped to an eye-bolt in the deck. The 
laniard is well smeared with grease, the tackles are bowsed upon, and when sufficiently taught, the 
parts of the laniard are nippered together with rope-yarns (see page 9). The end of the laniard is taken 
round one part of the shroud above the dead-eye, and then round both parts, until the whole is expended : 
it is then stopped to the shroud. 





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25 


LOWER RIGGING. 


When the whole are set up, the shrouds on the larboard side (without board), will appear like Fig. 
178. A piece of wood (r), called a Stretcher , or squaring staff, is seized to the shrouds, just above the 
dead-eyes, athwart the whole of them; which keeps them from twisting, and makes the laniards lie fairly. 

The futtock staves, where there are cat-harpins, may now be seized on, and the shrouds rattled down. 
For the latter purpose, Fig. .179, oars (b) or spars are laid athwart the shrouds without board, and seized 
fast at the distance of four or five feet. They are for the men to stand on, to fix the RAT-LINES. These 
are seized a foot distant from each other, beginning from the futtock stave (a).—The futtock stave is 
sometimes made of rope, served, and sometimes of wood: and it is only seized to those shrouds which 
are to be cat-harpined in. 

The rat-lines (c) are made fast to the shrouds, in the following manner: an eye is spliced in one end, 
which is seized to the foremost shroud (d): the remaining part is made fast round the shrouds (g, h, i, k, 
1, m), with clove-hitches (see page 7); and an eye being spliced in the other end, it is seized as before 
to the shroud (m). Whilst this is doing, the bowsprit horses may be fixed, Fig. 180. The end of each 
horse is spliced round a thimble, in an eye-bolt (a), at the after side of the bowsprit cap. The other 
ends are reeved through two stretchers (b); then through thimbles (c), in a span, made fast above the 
heart in the fore-stay, and having thimbles spliced in (d): they are set up by hand with a laniard, to 
iron stantions in the knight-heads (e). 

The fore top-mast stay-sail netting is made on these stretchers, thus, Fig. 181: A piece of rat-line 
stuff is spliced round the outer stretcher at (a): the other end is taken round the inner one at (b), and 
seized; the remainder being passed round each, alternately, and seized in the same manner: afterwards 
the outside parts (c), are seized at different distances to the horses, and then to each other, which forms 
the netting. 

The CAT-HARPINS are variously formed. Some go thus : They have an eye spliced in each end 
(t), and are either wormed, parcelled and served, or else wormed and leathered.. Previously to these 
being fixed, a spar is seized across the shrouds on each side, Fig. 182, and tail-blocks are made fast 
round the spar, and each shroud that is to be cat-harpined in. A rope called a Swifter (w), has its ends 
reeved through the middle blocks on each side: then through the others, alternately, and the fall leads 
across the deck: one end being through the foremost block on one side, and the other through the after¬ 
most one opposite. The shrouds are then bowsed in, and the cat-harpin legs (x) are seized to their re¬ 
spective shrouds, and futtock stave. The foremost shroud formerly, was never cat-harpined in, on ac¬ 
count of its being so much abreast of the mast, that the leg would chafe it: but now it is customary, in 
the merchant service, to have both the foremost and aftermost shrouds cat-harpined. This is done by 
an additional leg on each side, (as may be seen in the Figure): one eye is seized to the aftermost shroud 
on one side, and the other to the foremost one opposite, above the other legs. These are called CROSS 
CAT-HARPINS, and are of great use in keeping the lee rigging well in, when the ship rolls. 

Another method is thus: An eye is spliced in each end of the cat-harpin leg, as before; it is then 
middled, and a small heart, or large thimble (y), Fig. 183, is seized in the bight, with a round seizing 
(see page 9). Each eye (z) is then seized to a shroud, and they are set up by a laniard, reeved alter¬ 
nately through each heart (y), frapping-turns being taken round the parts. These may be taken in, at 
any time. None of the modern rigged merchant ships have cat-harpins. 




26 


SWAYING UP THE TOP MASTS, &c. 

—a©©— 

When the cat-harpin legs go in the last mentioned manner, and the foremost shroud is to be cat- 
harpined in, there is neither heart nor thimble seized in the bight: but a piece of copper (a), Fig. 184, 
being nailed round the mast, and the legs well leathered, the bight is taken round it: and the ends are 
seized as before to the shrouds and futtock staves. 

The LOWER CAP, Fig. 185, 

Is a block of oak, with a round hole in the fore part, for the top-mast to enter, and a square one abaft, to 
fit the lower mast-head: the round hole is generally leathered within. Underneath this cap are eye-bolts 
(b) on each side : one is for the top-block, and the foremost one for the fore lift block to hook to. The 
use of this cap is to keep the top-mast steady on the tressle-trees, and secure it to the lower mast-head. 

Top-masts are squared like the lower masts above the hounds, (c) Fig. 186: and in men of war 
cheek-bolts (b) are sometimes bolted on to the square on each side, with two sheaves, one above the 
other, for the jib and stay-sail halliards. It is generally eight square from the heel (d) to where the 
cap fits (e). In the heel a square hole (f) is cut, called the Fid-hole , and a sheave hole just above this, 
in the eight square (g), leading from the after part on the larboard side, to the fore part on the starboard 
side : and from this hole upwards , to the head of the eight square, there is a groove for the top-rope to lie 
in, that it may not be jammed between the mast and the tressle-trees. The part below the heel (h), is 
called the Block of the toy-mast. Some top-masts are rounded all the way from the hounds to the heel. 

The lower cap and top-block are hoisted up into the top by the girt-lines, and another large single 
block also, which is for a hawser to reeve through. 

The TOP-MAST is then hoisted on board, Fig. 187. The last mentioned block (1) is lashed round 
the head of the lower mast: and a hawser being reeved through it, it leads down between the tressle- 
trees before the fore-mast. It is taken through the fid-hole in the heel (k), brought up and hitched round 
the head of the mast and its standing part (l), and is stopped with spun-yarn in several places (m). The 
hawser is then taken through a large snatch block to the capstern (or windlass), and the mast is hove on 
board. When the head of the top-mast is above the lower tressle-trees, the end of the hawser is cast 
off, (the mast hanging by the stops) (m), and made fast round the lower mast-head, with a timber-hitch 
(see page 8). The men in the top then place the cap with the round hole over the the top-mast head, 
and stop it with spun-yarn. The hawser is hove upon, until the cap is high enough, and the square hole 
is placed over the lower mast-head. It is then beaten down with a top-mall. 

The top-block (n), Fig. 188, is hooked to an iron bolt, under the larboard side of the cap. The top- 
rope (m) is reeved through it, let down between the tressle-trees, through the sheave-hole in the larboard 
aft-side of the mast (1), and up again between the tressle-trees: the end is made fast with two half¬ 
hitches, to the eye-bolt under the starboard side of the cap. An eye being spliced in the other end of 
the top-rope, it is thrust through the strap of the top-tackle block (p), and a piece of wood called a Tog¬ 
gle (o) is put in. The lower block of the top-tackle (k) is hooked to an iron bolt in the deck, and the fall 
(q), being reeved through a leading block, is taken to the capstern. 

In large ships there is a top-block on each side of the cap (a, b), Fig. D : and the end of the top-rope, 
instead of being hitched to the the eye-bolt on the starboard side of the cap, reeves through the starboard 
top-block (a): and it is toggled, or bent, to another top-tackle block (c), which leads similarly to the 
larboard one. 








Page 26. 























































































































































































































































27 


CROSS-TREES—SISTER BLOCKS, &c. 

—qO©— 

The girt-lines are over-hauled for the CROSS-TREES. These are pieces of timber, Fig. 189, let 
into two tressle-trees (r), like the lower ones, and bolted firm to them. At each end of the cross-trees, 
are holes for the top-gallant shrouds to reeve through : and in the Merchant Service, the space between 
the after part of the tressle-trees is filled up with a chock, having sheave-holes in. 

The cross-trees are laid with the after square (p) over the round hole of the lower cap: and the top¬ 
mast being swayed high enough, enters with its head. The girt-lines are over-hauled down for the top¬ 
mast rigging; which is got over in the same manner as the lower shrouds were. A grommet is fre¬ 
quently put over the mast-head, to answer as a bolster, to prevent the friction of the rigging against the 
tressle-trees; and sometimes they have a bolster, the same as for the lower masts. The BURTON PEN¬ 
DENTS are first put over, which are fitted with a cut-splice (see page 5), the same as the runner pen¬ 
dent below, having a thimble spliced in each end, for the purpose of hooking the Burton tackle to. 

If there be no cheek-blocks at the mast-head, a span with a double block at each end is put over in 
the same manner, with a cut-splice: it is wormed, parcelled, and served over the collar, which is formed 
by it, Fig. 190: (a) the Burton pendent, (b) the span block on the larboard side. These double blocks 
are for the jib, halliards, stay, &c. 

The TOP-MAST SHROUDS are got over in the same manner as the lower ones, being served 
round the eyes and the foremost shroud all the length, to preserve it from being chafed by the top-sail 
yard, when braced up at different reefs. They are put over alternately: first a pair on the starboard, 
then a pair on the larboard side; they have dead-eyes turned into them, the same as the lower ones 
(see page 22.) 

In the foremost pair of shrouds, on each side, close under the seizing, is seized a sister block, Fig. 
191, having two sheave-holes, one above the other. A seizing (s) is clapped on between the sheave- 
holes, a score being left for that purpose: another at the upper end below the eye seizing (v), and a third 
beneath the lower sheave-hole (u). 

The BREAST BACK-STAYS, which are also for the lateral support of the top-mast, are next put 
over. They are served like the shrouds over the eye, about two feet below the cross-trees, and in the wake 
of the top-brim and lower yard. They have either'a single or a double block turned into their lower ends, and 
being for temporary use, they are not set up with dead-eyes. The method of setting them up, is men¬ 
tioned in page 29, with a Figure. 

The STANDING BACK-STAYS go next over-head: they have dead-eyes turned in their lower 
ends. These hang abaft the mast; whereas the breast back-stays hang down the side of it. 

The STAY and SPRING-STAY are then put over, (as mentioned in page 23.) In large ships they 
have a mouse raised like the lower ones: sometimes instead of a mouse an over-hand knot is made, and 
a Flemish, or a spindle-eye (see page 4) worked on the end; but in smaller vessels, the collar is made 
by splicing the end into the standing part. They are served round the collar, and about three feet below 
the mouse or splice. 

The top-mast cap is shaped like the lower one, and placed over the mast-head by hand ; after which, 
the top-mast is swayed up. When the square hole in the heel is clear above the tressle-trees, a large piece 
of iron (a), called a Fid, Fig. 192, is put through it, resting upon them. The top-rope is then eased off: 
and the mast rests upon the fid. 




28 


SETTING UP THE TOP-MAST RIGGING. 

— 

The futtock plates are hauled up into the top, and put through the mortises in the side of it. In one 
end of each is a dead-eye, to connect with those in the lower end of the top-mast rigging, and in the other 
a hole, to admit the hook of a futtock shroud, Fig. 193. 

The FUTTOCK SHROUDS have strong hooks and thimbles spliced into their upper ends, Fig. 194, 
and thimbles in the lower extremity. These splices are combed out, marled down, and served over 
with spun-yarn. The shrouds are wormed, and sometimes served. The hook at the upper end goes 
through the hole in the futtock plate, Fig. 195; and a laniard being spliced in the thimble at the other 
end, it is secured by passing it alternately, round the futtock stave (a), the lower shroud (b), and through 
the thimble, frapping the end part round the turns. Care should be taken that these snrouds are not 
cut too long, to allow for stretching; otherwise the lower splices must be drawn. They are sometimes 
not secured by a laniard ; but the end of the futtock shroud, Fig. 196, is taken over the futtock stave and 
lower shroud, and seized down to the latter. This is not so good a method as the former, being a strain 
upon the shroud, and apt to chafe it. 

In the improved method of rigging, the futtock shrouds are of iron, and are hooked into the futtock 
plates and led down to an iron strap around the mast (a), Fig. 233, to which they are secured by bolts. 
Few ships have more than three futtock shrouds, (b), Fig. 233. 

The FORE TOP-MAST STAYS, Fig. 197, 

Are rove on each side of the bowsprit end, through the bees. When there are no bees, a cheek block (a) is 
bolted to that part; and in some vessels there is a bolt with a single block strapped in at the bowsprit 
end for that purpose. 

When the stays are rove, either dead-eyes, double, or long tackle-blocks, are turned into the ends (b): 
the fall reeves through this, and through another dead-eye, or block, strapped to an eye-bolt in the bows. 
They are now generally set up on their own parts (see Fig 203). The double block of a luff-tackle (c) is 
hooked to a cat’s-paw, or Black-wall hitch (see page 8), on this laniard or fall, the single one to a selva- 
gee, round a timber-head on the forecastle: and by this purchase the mast is stayed forwards. The 
laniard is nippered as those for the lower shrouds were, and the end is taken through the eye-bolt, over 
the block, hitched round the other parts, and the end stopped; if it be long, frapping turns are taken round 
the other parts, like the Figure, under the bowsprit. The bee, or cheek block for the SPRING-STAY, 
(when there is one), should be well abaft the other, for the top-mast stay; that the fore top-mast stay¬ 
sail may not be chafed by it. The spring-stay is reeved through hanks, (to which the fore top-mast 
stay-sail is afterwards bent), previously to its being led through the bee, or cheek block. 

The TOP-MAST SHROUDS, Fig. 19S, 

Are set up thus: In large ships, a runner (d), having an eye and thimble spliced in one end, and the 
other end or tail being plaited or selvageed, is reeved through a single block (e), strapped with an eye 
and thimble. The tail of the runner is made fast round the shroud at (f), with a midshipman’s hitch (see 
page 91. The laniard of the shroud is cat’s-pawed to the hook, or toggled to the thimble of the runner 
block (e): the BURTON TACKLE (g) is hooked to the thimble in the end of the runner: and this is 
the purchase by which the shrouds are set up. In smaller ships, they are set up by the Burton singly ; 
and frequently, by a Spanish windlass in the top, as will be shewn in page 46, for the top-gallant shrouds! 
As the top will naturally rise a little, whilst the shrouds are setting up, it is beaten down with the top mall. 

The STANDING BACK-STAYS, 

Are then set up with luff-upon-luff, as mentioned for the lower rigging, (but in small vessels with a single 
luff), being connected by their laniards to a dead-eye in a stool,"at the after part of the channel. 




28 . 










































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29 


BREAST BACK-STAYS—MAIN STAY. 

—Q©©— 

The BREAST BACK-STAYS, 

Are only set up occasionally. When they go with a runner, Fig. 199, it leads thus: a single block (h) 
is turned into the end of the back-stay: a runner (i) is reeved through this, hitched, and seized to one 
of the chain plates (g): and in the end of this runner is spliced a single block (k): a double block (1), 
strapped with two legs, having an eye in each, is seized to the next chain plate. The fall (m) reeves 
through a sheave-hole in the double block (1), then through the single one (k), and through the double 
one again: the end is either made fast to abecket, spliced round the runner under the single block, with 
a sheet-bend (see page 8), or hitched round the runner, above the block: the other end of the fall (m) 
leads in upon deck. 

Sometimes a double block (n), Fig. 200, is turned into the back-stay: and a treble block (o) strapped 
with a hook and thimble, is hooked to an additional chain plate-: the fall is reeved as above, first, 
through the lower treble block (o), then through the double one, alternately, and the end is made fast, as 
before, to a becket under the upper, or double block: the fall leads in upon deck. 

The rigging is put over the head of the main-mast , main top-mast , mizen, and mizen top-mast , in the 
same manner that it is done forwards. 

The MAIN STAY, Fig. 201, 

Is fitted with an eye similar to the fore stay, Fig. 168. The end is rove through a heart, bolted to the 
upper breast-hook or the bowsprit bitts: it is then set up on its own part, and secured the same as the ! 
fore stay, (see Fig. 203). In merchant ships, the main stay is in two parts, leading down on each side 
of the foremast; in the wake of which it is leathered, or served and cleated, (Fig. 203), to prevent its 
working up and down on the mast. 

Sometimes there is a collar, Fig. 202, having a heart seized in at (a), with a round seizing (see page 
9). This collar is wormed, parcelled, and served: in the end of the short leg, there is an eye spliced 
(b): and the long leg being taken over the breast-hook, or through a large ring-bolt forwards, its end (c) 
is reeved through the eye (b), and seized to the standing part with one throat, and two or three round 
seizings (d), (see page 9.) 

Sometimes a heart is iron-bound, or strapped, to a large bolt (w) in the bows, Fig. 203, and set 
up as above. A pendent, called a JUMPER, has an eye spliced in one end, and a thimble in the other: 
the eye is seized to the stay (y), abreast of the fore-mast: and the thimble at the lower end has a laniard 
spliced into it, which is reeved alternately through an eye-bolt in the deck (z) and the thimble. This 
eye-bolt, which is a little distant from the mast on the starboard side, guys the stay off, and keeps it 
from working too much. 


8 




30 


STAYS. 

— 

The collar for the MAIN SPRING STAY has two legs, with an eye in each end. This heart is 
seized in the bight (d), laying abaft the fore-mast (e), and a seizing secures the two eyes (f) together, 
before the mast. It is set up with a laniard to the heart in the stay as before, with luff-upon-luff. In 
small ships it is often set up as the mizen stay in the next page. But a more snug way for this stay to 
be rigged, is to have neither hearts nor collars, thus: 


The stay is first reeved through hanks for bending the sail to, and then an eye is spliced in the 
lower end, Fig. 206, taken round the fore-mast under a cleat, and the other end reeved through it (g). 
At the upper end of the stay (i), Fig. 207, there is another eye, and a pendent (h) of the same size as 
the stay, having an eye in one end, is spliced into the stay at (k), where the mouse would be: these are 
set up with a lashing, or laniard (1), reeving alternately through the eyes, abaft the main-mast head 
above the rigging, by a Spanish windlass (see page 46). Spring stays are pretty much out of use, as stays 
are mostly double, as before described. 


The MAIN TOP-MAST STAY, Fig. 205, 

Is fitted the same as the main-stay, and led down to the deck forward of the foremast, where the ends 
are rove through hearts secured and placed a little above the main stay ; then set up and secured on its 
own part (see Fig. 205). The advantage of this plan, over the old way of leading to the fore-mast head, 
is too obvious to need comment: as in the case of the loss of the fore-mast under the old plan, the main 
top-mast was pretty sure to go with it. 

[We well remember a night in which the Rufus King lost her bowsprit and fore-mast, and the diffi¬ 
culty there was in preventing the main top-mast from following suit, from the main top-mast stays being 
secured to the head of the forecast.— Amer. EdJ] 


Some few ships are yet rigged with the main top-mast stay to set up on head of tho fore-mast, Fig 209. 


The SPRING or STAY-SAIL STAY, Fig. 210, being reeved through hanks as before, leads through 
a thimble seized into the strap with two legs, and lashed round the fore-mast, close under the bibbs (n), 
the thimble laying at the after part of the mast. It sometimes leads down abaft the mast, and sets up 
like the top-mast stay; but more frequently, it leads up through this thimble, and sets up to another, 
strapped round the fore-mast head above the rigging, as in the Figure, by a Spanish windlass, (see 
page 47), 









\h 



















































































































WHi'niter*.- .Vc.r mith Sc. 
















































































31 


MIZEN STAY—JIB-BOOM. 


——■ 

THE MIZEN STAY, Fig. 21.1, 

Is often double; in which case an eye is spliced in both ends: it is passed round the main-mast, Fig. 
211, and a cleat placed over itthen carried over the head of the mizen rigging. A short distance below 
the top a round seizing is put on to make the collar: it is then set up by lashings through the eyes and 
by a Spanish windlass. 

If it is single, the stay is fitted' with the ordinary collar, Fig. 169, and led through an iron strap on 
the main-mast, Fig 211, (d), and secured to its own part after being setup, as the main stay, Fig. 203. But 
another method is to have a heart, iron-bound, and an iron strap round the main-mast, Fig. 212. On 
one side of the hole may be cut a sheave-hole (b) for the mizen stay-sail down-hauler. 

The JIB-BOOM, 

Runs out through the cap of the bowsprit, as a top-mast does through the lower cap : inside of the cap it 
is eight square (o), Fig. 213, from the heel to the part which lies in the bowsprit cap. At the outer end 
of the boom a shoulder (p) is raised, as a stop to the rigging: a little within this shoulder a sheave-hole 
(q) is cut, and sometimes one without, at (r). At the inner end, in the squared part, is a sheave-hole 
(s) for the out-hauler or top-rops, and sometimes a hole for a heel-lashing; but there is frequently, 
instead of this sheave-hole, a snatch sheave at the heel, like Fig. 214; inside there is a small piece of 
wood, called a Shore (o), Fig. 215, to diminish the strain on the heel-lashing. 

The OUT-HAULER (w), Fig. 215. 

Is reeved up through a block (a), strapped to an eye-bolt in the bowsprit cap, then through the sheave- 
hole in the heel (x), and the end is taken to an eye-bolt in the other side of the cap, and hitched; but 
when the fore-stay heart is formed like Fig. 116, (page 14), it is reeved through a block on the aft side 
of the heart, and through the snatch sheave: the end being passed through a hole on the other side of 
the heart, an over-hand, or a wall knot, (see pages 5 and 7), is cast upon it. The boom is hauled out a 
little beyond the cap, and the rigging is put on as follows: first, an iron ring called a Traveller (b) is put 
over the boom end, which will be mentioned particularly in page 61, when shewing the jib-stay, &c. 

The HORSES, (d), 

For the men to stand on, go next over, with a cut-splice, (see page 5), or a jamming hitch, and have over¬ 
hand, or diamond knots (see page 6) cast on them at different distances. Their ends are hitched round 
the boom, within the cap, when run out; and they are stopped with spun-yarn to the standing part. 
The GUY-PENDENTS (c) go next over the boom end, in the same manner: these are for supporting the 
boom to windward. The TRAVELLING GUYS are spliced round thimbles on the traveller (b). (For 
a better way of rigging, see next page). 

On the sprit-sail yard (the rigging and getting across of which, will be mentioned in pages 41 and 
42) two thimbles (e) are seized on each side, through which these guy-pendents are reeved, and in the 
end of each pendent is turned a double or a single block (f g), (according to the size of the vessel), con¬ 
nected by the falls with blocks strapped to eye-bolts in the bows. If a double block be turned in (f), the 
purchase is that of a luff-tackle; but if a single one (g), it is either a single whip , or a gun-tackle purchase, 
as in the figure, setting up to the single block (h) in the bows. 

The rest of the rigging belonging to the boom, will be mentioned when describing the jib, page 61. 

The two guys are commonly set up with one purchase, like Fig. A, having one fall on each side. 
The PENDENTS are middled over the boom-end (b); and the ends, on each side, being taken through, 
the outer thimble (c) on the sprit-sail yard through the thimble in the strap of the block (d), and through 
the inner thimble (e) on the yard, are spliced to the thimbles on the traveller (t). 




32 


JIB-BOOM—SPRIT-SAIL YARD—JIB-GUYS—MARTINGALE, &c. 


The head of the jib-boom is fitted with an iron strap, to which there are eye-bolts attached, and the 
different pieces of rigging after mentioned are spliced or hooked in. 

Ships which carry SPRIT-SAIL YARDS, have them sometimes slung like Fig. 1. An iron strap 
(c) goes round the BOWSPRIT, having a kind of hinge (d) to lie underneath it. Another iron strap (e) 
goes round the SPRIT-SAIL YARD at the slings, having a swivel eye-bolt (f) on the upper side. This 
eye is placed in the hinge (d)j a bolt (g) having an eye in the end, is put through the hinge and eye, and 
a forelock (h) secures it. 

The SPRIT-SAIL YARD, by this mode, is topped with great facility: and by the lifts, it is got fore 
and aft instantly, hanging by the swivel, and being secured by lashings.—When it is required to be got 
in, the top or yard rope is hove upon, and the bolt taken out of the hinge. 

Another mode is adopted for a SPRIT-SAIL YARD, Fig. 2. An iron strap, with a double eye- 
bolt on both sides of the bowsprit (m), Fig. 2, is fitted round the mast: in this another eye-bolt, Fig. 2, 
(i), is put, bolted and forelocked. This allows the yard to be triced in, and laid parallel to the bowsprit 
when in dock. In such cases the yard is in two pieces. 

A DOUBLE DOLPHIN STRIKER, or MARTINGALE, Fig. 13, may go with a hinge (o) fastened 
on the bowsprit cap, close under the hole for the jib-boom, and secured with an iron strap (p) at the low¬ 
er part of the cap. This is fitted with a hinge and pin, to open when the dolphin striker is either triced 
up, in coming into dock, or when it is unshipped. (They are now generally single). 

Between the two legs of the dolphin striker is an iron bar, having a roller (q), and two iron braces (r). 
There are three sheave-holes, 1, 2, 3, in each leg, and a small hole underneath them (s). 

The MARTINGALE STAY (t) reeves through the roller (q), leads through a thimble (u) in a strap 
round the bowsprit: and it sets up with a luff-tackle purchase to an eye-bolt in the bows. 

The MARTINGALE GUY (v) leads through a thimble in the strap on the bowsprit, through the 
upper sheave-hole (1), reeves through a block (w) strapped round the jib-boom end, back again through 
the second sheave-hole (2), and through another thimble in the strap round the bowsprit. The other end 
is hitched or seized to a timber-head, or an eye-bolt in the bows. 

The FLYING JIB MARTINGALE GUY, leads through a thimble in the strap on the bowsprit, and 
through the lower sheave-hole (3), reeves through a block (y) at the end of the flying jib-boom, and through 
the hole (s). A double wall-knot (see page 5), is then cast on the end. The same operation takes place 
in the other leg of the dolphin striker. 

The AFTER GUY (x) goes with a running eye round the end of the dolphin striker (z), leads through 
a thimble in a strap round the bowsprit, and sets up with a luff-tackle purchase as before.* 

When no sprit-sail yard is carried, the JIB-BOOM may be equally secured by guys to an outrigger 
or boomJcin, Fig. 5, or to the cat-heads. This method is followed by most ships, on account of the great 
weight of a yard, equal in size to the fore top-sail yard, lying so far out when a ship is pitching, which 
adds considerably to the strain on the bowsprit. These OUTRIGGERS, or HORNS, are sometimes of 
iron, and in the above mentioned ships are rigged out just abaft the CAT-HEADS. Blocks are 
strapped to them for the falls, in one of the methods represented in the Figure. 


* The martingale (t) might be bent to the traveller, and a martingale stay taken from the jib-boom end, reeved through 
a block (a) in a span at the end of the dolphin striker, and through a block on the bowsprit as before. 










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Page 33 





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33 


LOWER YARDS. 

—^!©S©— 

THE MAIN AND FORE YARDS, 

Are large poles, and in men of war are of different pieces, scarfed together; but in smaller ships, 
they are of one piece. The centre of the pole (g), Fig. 216, is called the Slings of the Yard: from 
that to the first quarter on each side (h) it is eight square: and on these squares battens are 
frequently nailed. 

On each side of the slings there is a cleat (i), called a Sling Cleat: and within the yard-arms are 
two cleats, called Stop Cleats (k), for the rigging to rest against. These are often raised on the yard. 

The IRONS for the studding-sail booms are sometimes nailed and hooped on the yard-arms, like (1): 
but in others, they are made to ship and unship, like (m), and are driven on the square of the yard-arm. 

Large ships have an inner boom iron, which is fastened round the yard with an iron strap (n), and 
nailed to it; but in smaller vessels there is a wooden saddle (o) for th£f boom to rest on. 

To get this yard on board for rigging, Fig. 217, a hawser is reeved through the top-block (c); it is 
then bent round the slings of the yard with a Fisherman's Bend (see page 8), and stopped at different 
places with spun-yarn (a). If it be got on board on the larboard side, the starboard yard-arm is the 
uppermost, and the hawser is, of course, stopped to that, as in the figure. 

The hawser being led through a snatch block (see page 13) upon deck, it is taken to the capstern, 
and the yard is hove on board: as it rises the outer stops (a) are cut: and if it be large, the starboard 
runner tackle may be made fast to the first quarter, to ease it in lowering, when the stops (a) are cut. 
When it is lowered it will lie athwart the forecastle and over the main-stay (b), for rigging. In small 
vessels a mat is laid over the stay; but in large ships, Fig. F, the runners (a) are hitched round the 
first quarter of the yard on each side, and their lower tackle-blocks (b) hooked to the bights: the yard 
thus hangs clear of the main-stay (c), ready for rigging. 

Yards now are fitted, as seen in (Fig. 218), before they are taken op deck. 


9 



34 


RIGGING THE LOWER YARDS, Fig. 218. 

—eo©— 

Iron straps are fitted to the yard-arm with three eye-bolts, into which are hooked or spliced the horses, 
lifts, braces and reef-tackle blocks. 

The iron straps for the slings, quarter and clue garnet blocks, are fitted on. The jack-stays (h), which 
are sometimes of rope or iron, but most commonly of oak, are fastened to the yard. These are to bend 
the head of the sail to. This work is usually done before the yard is taken on deck. 

The horses (c) for the men to stand on are hooked or spliced to the strap; they are rove through 
thimbles spliced into short ropes called stirrups (d). A thimble is spliced into the other end of the horse 
(c), and it is lashed to the yard by the quarter block (g). 

The stirrup (d) has an eye spliced in one end for the horse to reeve through; the other end is secured 
on top of the yard by a staple drove into the yard. 

The brace blocks (k) are hooked into the yard-arm strap, and the reef-tackle blocks (1) also: they 
are either double or single, as may be required. 

The YARD-TACKLE PENDENTS (e) are next put over. They have an eye spliced in one end 
to fit the yard-arm : and in the other end there is a thimble to hook the double block of a luff or a long 
tackle to. When these tackles go without pendents, a strap with a thimble in (g) is put over the yard¬ 
arm for the hook of the tackle. These tackles are used for hoisting in the boat, provisions, &c. and when 
not wanted, are triced up to the yard by a line called a Tricing Line. This is reeved through a block 
strapped round the yard, and hanging underneath it at (h) about the distance of the pendent’s length 
within the arm cleats. When a pendent (e) is used, there are two tricing-lines: and the last mentioned 
is called the outer one. The inner one is reeved through a block seized to the futtock stave: and a thimble 
being spliced in the end, the single block of the yard-tackle is hooked to it. When no pendent is used, 
but merely the strap (g), there is but one tricing-line, which generally reeves through an iron staple 
under the yard, and through a small block strapped to the truss pendent, at the seizing, close to the yard, 
belaying to a cleat on the mast below. 

The TOP-SAIL SHEET BLOCKS, 

When they are used, are strapped, and placed over the yard-arms. Top-sail sheets are now rove 
through a sheave-hole fitted i* a sheave at the yard-arm. 

Sometimes the top-sail sheet block, is spliced into the lift (N), leaving beneath the seizing an eye for the 
yard-arm, which is served over. When the lifts go double , the lift block (O), and the top-sail sheet block 
(P), are generally strapped together, the former above the latter (o p.) 

The QUARTER BLOCKS, (Q), 

Are strapped with iron. These are large blocks hanging below the yard, under the slings, within the 
cleats (q), and for the top-sail sheets. 

The CLUE-GARNET BLOCKS, (r), 

Strapped in the same manner, hang underneath the yard, just without the cleats on each side : tfiey are 
hooked into an iron strap. There are two bunt-line blocks on each side (s), placed as in the Figure: these 
stand on the upper part of the yard. The leech-line blocks (t) stand also above the yard. These are 
secured to the yard by staples, or seized to the jack-stay. 





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35 


LIFTS, JEARS, &c. 

— 

When the LIFTS go SINGLE, Fig. 219, they reeve through blocks hooked to eye-bolts in the fore 
part of the lower cap (v), leading down through the square, or lubber's hole, in the top: at the lower end 
a single block (t) is turned in: the fall is made fast to a becket, with a sheet bend (see page.8) spliced 
round the strap of another single block, which is hooked to a bolt in the channel just within the fore¬ 
mast dead-eye, then reeved through the upper block (t), again through the lower one, and the fall leads 
in upon the fore-castle. Sometimes a span goes over the cap, Fig. 220, having the lift-blocks spliced in, 
and the span lashing passed under the cap. 

Another way for the lifts when single is, not to have any blocks at the cap, but the lifts to lead over 
the top ofit, like Fig. 221, and down through lubber’s hole on the opposite side, having a double block (s) 
turned in the lower end, setting up with a fall to a single block in the channel: and it leads through a 
block strapped to a bolt in the side, within board. This looks snug, and is found in the Merchant Ser¬ 
vice to answer very well. The lift must be leathered in the wake of the cap. Sometimes there is a 
saddle placed on the cap, for the lifts to rest in. 

DOUBLE LIFTS go thus, Fig. 222 : They are reeved up through the block at the fore part of the 
cap (v), through the lift-block (u), strapped to the strap of the top-sail sheet block, and the end is made 
fast to the eye-bolt in the cap (v): the lower end has either a single block turned in as before, or it is 
led through a block in the side. 

Straps for the slings, Fig. 223, are thus made : A piece of rope of sufficient length is wormed, par¬ 
celled, and served, or leathered, and spliced together: a large thimble or small heart is seized in with a 
round seizing (see page 9) at the splice (w). The strap is laid under the yard, exactly in the middle, 
between the sling cleats, the heart or thimble laying forwards: the bight (v) is then brought up abaft the 
yard, the thimble before it, and reeved through the bite, pointing upwards. 

JEARS in men of war go thus: A large cleat (x) is bolted on the square of the lower mast-head 
on each side: two large three-fold blocks are hoisted into the top, by the Burton tackles. These blocks 
are double strapped (see page 15). Long lashings are spliced to the straps of these blocks. The lash¬ 
ing of the block (y), Fig. 224, on the larboard side, goes round the fore part of the mast-head, over the 
cleat on the starboard side, round the after part of the mast, through the strap again, and is continued in 
the same manner, until the whole is expended. The block on the starboard side, has its lashing passed 
over the cleat (x), on the larboard side, and through its strap in the same manner. 

Two double blocks, Fig. 225, are lashed on the fore-yard, one on each side of the strap, for the slings, 
laying upon the yard. These are double strapped, and are secured by a rose lashing (see page 11) 
underneath. The jear falls are reeved in the following manner, Fig. 226 : The end is taken up abaft , 
through the outer sheave-hole of the treble or upper block, then before through the outer sheave-hole of the 
double block (a), and so on alternately: the end is hitched, or spliced, to the strap of the block (a). 

Some ships have stout chocks, with sheave-holes, strongly secured to the tressle-trees, for the jears 
to reeve through: and smaller ships have, frequently, only one hanging block, which goes over the mast¬ 
head with a long and short leg, like the slings in the next page, Fig* 228. 




36 


JEARS AND SLINGS. 

—e©©— 

For the JEAR TYES, Fig. 227, two straps similar to the sling strap are sometimes put over the 
yard, one on each side, within the cleats, like (a). The tyes are then led through the single blocks (z) 
at the mast-head, (lashed in the same manner over the cleats that the treble blocks were): the ends are bent 
to the straps with a sheet-bend, and seized to the standing part (b), with a round seizing (see page 9). In the 
other end treble or double blocks (c) are turned with a throat , and round seizings: and treble or four-fold 
ones (d), being strapped to eye-bolts in the deck, they are connected together by the jear falls as before; 
the ends of the falls are, in this case, made fast to the straps of the upper blocks. The jear tyes some¬ 
times go round the yards, without straps. In this case, they have eyes spliced in their ends, which are 
brought up on the after side of the yard, and the other ends before it: the latter is reeved through the 
former (f). 

When jears are carried, their falls are stretched aft, and the yard is swayed up by them; but, if 
there be no jears, it is got up either by the hawser which hove it on board, taken to the capstern, or 
otherwise, by tackles, their double blocks being hooked, one on each side, to an eye-bolt in the cap, and 
the single blocks to selvagees, on each side the slings of the yards. The slings of the yard, and the 
trusses, which go variously, as in the next page, are then fitted on. 

SLINGS, 

Are sometimes made thus, Fig. 228: An eye is spliced in one end; they are then wormed, parcelled, 
and served, the whole length: a large thimble (g) is seized in with a round seizing, so as to make a long 
and short leg: the thimble hangs before the mast: the long leg goes round the mast above the rigging, and 
the end is reeved through the short one: it is then seized back to the standing part (h). When the slings go 
in this manner, either the seizing at the thimbles (g), or the seizing (h), should be a throat one, (see page 
9). A laniard (i) is then spliced into the thimble (g), which is reeved alternately through it, and the 
thimble (w), in the strap on the yard. When sufficient turns are taken, the end-part is frapped round 
the whole, and stopped. The jears or tackles, are then eased off, and the yard hangs by the slings. It 
is kept in a horizontal direction by the lifts, which are hauled taught, and squared by the braces, which 
will be mentioned, as to their leading, in page 48. 

Ships which carry no jears, have frequently two pair of slings: one of which is called the preventer 
slings. In this case, the inner ones sometimes go with a long and short leg above the rigging, Fig. 229, 
one leg leading on each side of the tressle-trees, and before the.cross-tree close to the fore-mast: the 
outer pair (the ship having a grating top) lead up between the tressle-trees and before the fore-mast 
cross-tree (y), the two legs being lashed together above the cleat (z), at the after part of the mast. 
Some ships have the slings taken over the cap, Fig. 230, with a long and short leg. These slings are 
often lashed down to the after part of the mast, the lashing leading in the direction of the dotted line (a), 
Fig. 229. 

In some ships there are no straps on the yard for the slings; but they being made sufficiently long, 
Fig. 231, the legs are taken over the yard, and through the bight abaft the yard, and the two eyes are 
lashed together abaft the mast. 

Sometimes the straps for the slings are made like Fig. A—an eye (a) being spliced in each end, 
is seized to the yard: two other seizings are also clapped on the bight, at (b). These give the yards 
play for bracing up. 

N. B. The thimble in Fig. A, should be close down to the yard. One end (a) might be first seized 
down: the eye in the other should be hooked to a luff-tackle, g.nd hove well taught: then, the other seiz¬ 
ings may be clapped on. 





36 . 


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37 


TRUSSES. 


Sometimes, in small vessels, a strap, with an eye and thimble (a), Fig. 232, goes round the yard: 
the slings reeve through the eye, have a round seizing (see page 9) just above the yard, and another 
above the foremost cross-tree : they are set up with a lashing through the two eyes abaft the mast, or 
with a long and short leg over the cap, as in the last page. 

Lower yards are now slung with chains, Fig. 233. A stout piece of oak is scarfed on the forward 
foot of the tressle-trees, and the chain (c) is secured to it, shackled and bolted to the yard. 

Trusses (b), Fig. 233, are now, in most merchantmen, fitted in the way in the plate: an iron band is 
secured around the mast, and the truss, after being secured to the yard, plays in a goose-neck. The 
advantages of this plan are, that the yard keeps clear of the rigging, and there is no labor in over-hauling 
trusses, and the yard works with one-fourth less labor; but on the other hand there is more danger of 
the trusses being carried away, than when made of rope. 

In order to keep the yard close to the mast (when it lies square), a rope, called a Truss, is used, the 
pendents of which are made in this form, Fig. 234: An eye and thimble is spliced into the end of each 
pendent: that on the starboard side is put over the yard, the end with the eye in being uppermost (b)'; 
and it is seized with a throat seizing (see page 9) to the standing part abaft the yard : the end of the 
larboard pendent (d) being uppermost, is reeved through the eye of the starboard one (b); and the end of 
the starboard pendent, which is underneath, through the eye in the larboard one (c), which is below also: 
a double block is turned or spliced into the end of each pendent (e), and is joined by a fall to a single 
one, hooked or strapped to an eye-bolt in the deck, close to the mast. These pendents are placed over 
the yard, within the sling cleats: they ore wormed and served; and all the parts which lie abaft the 
mast (for a sufficient length to ease off) and round the yard, are leathered and well greased, that they 
may traverse smoothly through the thimbles when they are hauled upon or let go. If only one of these 
trusses be used, Fig. 235, the end goes abaft the mast, round the yard, abaft the rnast again, and 
through the thimble (b), leading down as before. But this method of the truss tackles leading below is 
generally exploded ; they now lead up to the lower tressle-trees or top-mast cap. 

To reeve a DOUBLE TRUSS upon the BIGHT, Fig. 236, 

Which shows the after side of the lower mast: a thimble (a) is spliced into one end of the truss pendent, 
which is taken round the yard and seized to the standing part, as before, (the eye being uppermost), 
with a throat seizing, (see" page 9): a cleat with two holes is nailed on the mast (b). The end of the 
truss pendent is taken through the lower hole in the cleat (a) and reeved through two thimbles (c and d): 
the end is next taken round before the mast, reeved through the thimble (a), led through the upper hole 
in the cleat (b) over and under the yard at the dotted line, and the end is spliced round the thimble (c). 
The end (c) and the standing part are then seized together at the dotted line, as before. A single block 
of a truss-tackle is strapped round the thimble (d), and the double block may be hooked to a bolt in the 
cap, Fig. 237, (which shows the fore side of the mast), when the truss pendent will lead as represented 
by the dotted line; or the double block of the truss-tackle may be strapped to the bight (d), and the 
single one to a strap (e), round the mast, laying before it; but it is always better to have the tackle up 
aloft, for the reason given below. Thus there is a double truss and only a single fall leading down on 
deck, and the pendents are easily overhauled. 

A THIRD WAY, Fig. 238. 

The pendents are made much shorter than common, having only sufficient length to overhaul, in 
order to give the yard play. A single block being spliced or turned into the end ot each pendent (i), 
sets up with a fall to a double block (k), lashed to the tressle-trees or aftermost cross-tree, on each side. 
Should the slings of the yard give way, these will act as preventer slings, and hang the yard until suffi¬ 
ciently secured. 


10 




38 


TRUSSES—CROSS-JACK YARD, &c. 

—qo©— 

A FOURTH WAY, Fig. 239. 

This is to answer the last mentioned purpose. The pendents are short, as before; a single block is 
turned or spliced into the end of each, setting up by a fall to a double one (1), hooked to an eye-bolt in 
the top-mast cap, leading down through lubber’s hole. This leads very fair; but the collar of the main¬ 
stay (m), and the truss-pendent, must be well leathered. 

A FIFTH WAY, Fig. 240. 

The pendents are reeved through the cleat abaft the mast, and led down below as before ; but instead 
of laying round the yard within the sling-cleats, an additional cleat (h) is nailed on the yard further out, 
on each side, to stop them from coming in. The end of each pendent is taken round the mast, and reeved 
through its own thimble. The fall, by these means, laying, close in to the mast, each truss acts as a roll¬ 
ing tackle , by bowsing the yard in. 

When the trusses lead down on deck, and there is no cleat to keep the bights of the pendents from 
slipping down, and to hang the yard by, should the slings give way, a pudding (n), Fig. 241, is placed 
round the mast, and the ends are seized together before it, with a rose lashing, as mentioned in page 11. 
Under this, as a support, is placed a dolphin (o), lashed in the same manner. To make these see, pages 
10 and IL In order to over-haul these truss-pendents, a rope called a Nave line (p), with a span, is 
reeved through a block under the after part of the top, and the ends are spliced to thimbles on the 
pendents. 

The MAIN-YARD, 

Is rigged in the same manner as the fore-yard. 

The LOWER CROSS-JACK YARD, 

Is slung to the mizen-mast like the other lower yards to their respective masts. It is rigged the same 
as the fore-yard when there is a sail to be bent to it, (which is not very common) with this exception, 
that the brace blocks (d and g), Fig. 242, are on the forward part of the yard; as mizen braces lead 
forward to the after main shroud. 

When there is no sail to be bent to it, the geer necessary is omitted. Fig. 242 represents a mizen- 
yard with top-sail sheet blocks; sheave-holes are generally used, and are better. 

The TOP-SAIL YAIIDS, 

Are made similar to the lower ones ; eight square from the slings to the first quarter on each side, and 
rounded from thence to the yard arms. 

In some ships there are two sheave-holes, one within the arm cleats for the top-gallant sheets, and 
another without them for the reef tackle pendent (Fig. 244); but others have one sheave-hole for the top¬ 
gallant sheets, and the reef tackles lead through a block (Fig.- 313).. 

In order to get this yard on board for rigging, a block is taken up to the top-mast head, Fig. 243, 
and lashed there: a hawser (a) being reeved through it, is made fast to the slings of the yard (b), and 
stopped along the starboard yard arm (c), (if it be got up on the larboard side) with spun-yarn. As it is 
hove on board, the stops are cut, and it lies athwart the fore-castle over the main-stay, (which has a mat 
placed on it to keep it from chafing), ready for rigging. This yard is rigged below; but I shall describe 
it as if it were aloft, and show how to get it across in page 41. 






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39 


TOP-SAIL YARD RIGGED—TYES. 

— 

The HORSES (a), Fig. 244, 

Are reeved through the stirrups which are previously nailed on. (To make this rigging, see that for a 
lower yard page 34). An eye is spliced in the inner end, and they are seized either to the yard, without 
the cleats on the opposite side, or to the straps of the quarter blocks : when to the latter, a span is spliced 
round the strap of each block, to keep them from flying outwards, when the top-gallant sheets are not 
hauled home. Sometimes they are seized to the strap of the tye block (k). 

There is an additional horse on the top-sail yard called a FLEMISH HORSE (b), having an eye 
spliced in each end, one of which goes over the bolt in the yard-arm; and the other is seized to the yard' 
within the arm cleats (c); but frequently this eye in the inner end is spliced round a thimble in the other 
horse like (d). To the bolt or boom iron in each yard arm, is strapped a block (e), called a Jewel block , 
for the top-mast studding-sail halliards. 

The BRACE PENDENTS, on BRACE BLOCK STRAPS, (f) 

Are hooked or spliced in ; but if there be no pendents, a block strapped like that mentioned in page 34, 
for the lower yard, is substituted. 

The lifts (g) hook into the strap like the single lower lifts. The lift is reeved through the lower 
sheave-hole of the sister block, which is seized in between the two foremost top-mast shrouds (as shown 
in page 27); and sometimes large ships have a block turned into the lower end, setting up with a single 
whip, one end of the fall being hitched or clinched to a chain plate, or to one of the lower shrouds; but 
more commonly, they have no block turned in, and the end of the lift is made fast with a midshipman’s 
hitch (see page 9) round one of the lower shrouds. 

When the TOP-SAIL LIFTS go double, Fig. 245, the lift block (a) is strapped with an eye to fit the 
yard-arm : the standing part of the lift has a hook spliced in the end (b), which is hooked either to a 
span, or an eye-bolt, in the top-mast cap; the other end leads through the block (a), and through the lower 
sheave-hole in the sister block, as before, being hitched round one of the lower shrouds,, above the dead- 
eye. The top-gallant sheet block is strapped in below the lift block, like the top-sail sheet block on the 
lower yard (page 34, P. O). 

The REEF TACKLE PENDENTS (i), 244, 

Are reeved through the upper sheave-holes in the sister blocks, and through the sheave-holes in the yard¬ 
arms without the stop cleats : an overhand knot is cast on the ends, till wanted, to prevent their unreev¬ 
ing. In the other end a double block is turned : and a single one being strapped, or lashed to the lower 
tressle-tree, it is hauled out when used, with a luff’tackle purchase (n), the fall leading down upon deck, 
through a leading block, (For the different methods of leading REEF TACKLES in the Merchant 
Service, see page 55). 

The TYE BLOCK (k), 

Having two bunt-line blocks strapped to it, (or in small ships in the Merchant Service two thimbles), is 
double strapped, like thejear blocks on the lower yard, (seepage 33), and is secured with rose lashings 
underneath. The strap, if single, is sometimes spliced round the yard, and the block seized in. 

When the tyes go double, the block on the yard is a double one, and they lead thus: A large single 
block (a), Fig. 246, is lashed on each side of the top-mast head, hanging close under the stay collar. The 
ends of the tyes (b) are reeved through them, then through the double block on the yard (c), and clinch¬ 
ed or hitched round the top-mast head, above the rigging. The fly-block of the top-sail halliards (d) ! , 
(being double) is turned into the end of each tye: and they reeve through it and a single block in the 
channel, the end of the halliards being made fast to a becket, in the strap of the single block (like a luff 
tackle). For the single block, see the next page. 




40 


TYES—PARRAL, &c. 

-<*©£>- 

When the single block is used on the yard, and two blocks at the mast-head, having two pair of hal¬ 
liards, the TYE leads thus. Fig. 247: The end of the tye is reeved through one of the blocks at the mast¬ 
head (q) as before, through the single block on the yard (r), and through the other block (q), at the head 
of the mast. In each end is turned a fly-block (s), the halliards leading as before to a single block in the 
channel. This is an excellent method for a single lye; because if the yard remain at the mast-head for 
a considerable time, (which is often the case), the tye is liable to be chafed by continual friction in the 
blocks : but the service may be freshened by easing off one pair of halliards and hoisting on the other. 
The tye is wormed, parcelled, and served about three-fourths of its length. 

Tyes, Fig. 248, are now mostly of chain, and are fastened*by a shackle and bolt to an iron strap on 
the yard, Fig. 248 (n). 


In order to avoid the necessity of shifting the top-sail halliards over to windward, when there is but 
one pair, they lead thus: the fly-block (a), Fig. 250, is spliced into the end of the tye, a little below the 
top-mast cat-harpins: the single block (b), instead of leading to the channel, is hooked to a strap round 
the aftermost part of the tressle-trees. This tye, which is short, is served the whole length : and the fall 
of the halliards leads down abaft the mast, and through a leading block below. 

An excellent method for tyes, when there are but few hands, is to have a short tye, a runner, and two 
pair of top-sail halliards, like Fig. 251. The runner (a) is reeved through a single block (b), spliced, or 
turned into the end of the short tye: and a fly-block (c) is turned into each end, the falls leading as 
usual, to a single block in the channel, on each side. Some ships have only one pair of halliards 
with the runner ; in which case, one end of the runner is hitched round the tressle-tree on one side, and 
the single block of the halliards lashed to the other. When the yard is down, the fly-block will be chock 
up to the block in the tye. 


The single block of the top-sail halliardo, Fig. 252, when hooked to the channel, has a long strap with 
two seizings, (c), to clear the gunnel: and the eye-boll, to which it is hooked, has a swivel; so that if 
the halliards be twisted, the turns are easily taken out, by slueing the block round. The hook (d) is 
moused with spun-yarn : and the strap of this block is generally pointed over. 


The TOP-SAIL YARDS are retained to the masts by PARRALS, which answer the same purpose 
that the trusses do to the lower yards. There are several kinds of parrals; the Fig. 253 is of iron, se¬ 
cured into an iron brace on the yard by a screw. Fig. 253 (1), is a cylinder of iron, which is leathered and 
placed over the mast: the parral is then secured around it, and it runs up and down with the yard. Fig. 
253 (a), is a chock of wood bolted to the yard, scored out to the diameter of the mast, and leathered. It 
is then secured to the mast by an iron strap, bolted and keyed, or a lashing through eye-bolts on the 
after part of the chock, as shown in the plate. The advantages of these parrals are, that they keep the 
yards steady, and render the use of rolling tackles unnecessary. For another kind of parral, see next 
page. 





WjFToofcer A- . 


























































































































































,/. j: 



































41 


GETTING THE TOP SAIL YARDS ACROSS—SPRIT-SAIL YARD. 


The parral rope, when used, is put on the stretch, wormed, parcelled and served, or leathered, Fig. 
254. An eye (f) is spliced in each end; then a round seizing (g), forming the bight which goes over the 
yard on one side, is clapped on: the bight (h) is put over the yard-arm, and driven taught on to the slings 
of the yard, previously to its being rigged, and the sling-cleats nailed on. The quarter seizing is clapped 
on, close to the upper eye (i); the eye at the lower end is taken under and over the yard, a seizing is 
clapped on close to the yard, and the two eyes are seized together. N. B. The quarter seizing (i) must 
be clapped on first; or it could not be crossed. In smaller vessels, the parrals are made like those for 
the top-gallant yards. 

If the TOP-SAIL YARD be got across before the lower yard, it may be done with the lifts and bra¬ 
ces reeved, ropes being bent to the ends of the lifts, to lengthen them for over-hauling; but if not, the 
braces, See. are coiled on the bunt of the yard. . The hawser (a), Fig. 256, being bent to the slings of the 
yard, is stopped to the starboard yard-arm (b) in different places. The hawser is then hove upon, and 
as the yard rises, the stops are cut: when high enough above the lower cap, the last stop is cut which 
crosses it. The braces are thrown down, taken up, and reeved through their proper blocks at the stays 
or mast-heads (for which see pages 48 and 49). In small merchantmen, the top-sail yards may be got 
across like the top-gallant yards, the upper yard-arms being rigged up aloft. 


The SPRIT-SAIL YARD, which is rounded all the way, is laid fore and aft on the fore-castle for 
rigging, the starboard yard-arm laying forwards, if it be on the larboard side. It is described here as 
rigged across (to get it across, see the next page). The horses (a), Fig 255, are first put over the yard¬ 
arms, reeving through the stirrups, and being seized as before, the brace-pendents or straps (c) are next 
put over. The lifts (f), if single, go over the yard-arms with eyes: and they are either hitched to the 
eye-bolts in the bowsprit cap, or led through blocks seized to the bolts, and then belayed to a timber- 
head on the fore-castle. If double, a block (e) is strapped to fit the yard-arm, and put over after the 
brace-block or pendent on each side. The lift is reeved through the block at the cap (d), then through 
the block at the vard-arm (e), and the end is hitched to an eye-bolt in the cap. Sometimes there is a 
hook and thimble spliced in the end of the lift, and this is hooked to the eye-bolt in the cap. This oc¬ 
casionally serves as a sprit-sail top-sail sheet, by being hooked to a thimble in the clue of that sail. (For 
the best way of fitting sprit-sail yards, see Fig. 1, page 32.) 


The BRACES, Fig. 255, 

Are led up through one of the sheaves of a double block (m), under the after part of the fore-top, and through 
another under the fore part, next through the block in the brace-pendent, or strap (c), and the ends are 
made fast round the collar of the fore-stay (o): the leading part (p) is belayed to a pin or cleat on the 
fore-castle. When the braces go single, as in small ships, they have an eye to fit the yard-arm, and are 
led through blocks under the top, as before. 


a 




42 


GETTING ACROSS THE SPRIT-SAIL YARD, &c. 

—Q©©— 

Some few ships have halliards to the sprit-sail yard, Fig* 25S. A strap (m) is spliced round the slings 
of the yard, having a thimble seized in, and the splice laying on the thimble. The single block of the 
the halliards (n) is hooked to this, and moused with spun-yarn: the double block (which is long tackle 
fashion) is hooked to an eye-bolt (o), in the under part of the bowsprit cap. These halliards are now 
generally left off, and in the Merchant Service are never used. When this is the case, the yard is slung 
like Fig. 250. The lower end of the sling is spliced through the eye of the strap on the yard (n), over a 
second thimble. In the upper end is spliced a hook and thimble, and it is hooked to the bolt in the 
bowsprit cap. 

When the yard is rigged, the starboard brace (m) and' lift (n), Fig. 260, are taken underneath the bow¬ 
sprit, as it lies on the larboard side of the fore-castle: it is got across by a yard rope (or top rope) 
reeved through a tail block (p) lashed on the fore top-mast stay, and is squared by the lifts and braces. 
When the sling is hooked, and the parral passed over the saddle, the top rope is taken off 


In small ships, in the Merchant Service, it is got across by the lifts and braces, without the top rope. 
When these vessels carry no. sprit-sail yard, the jib-boom is made proportionally strong, having no sup¬ 
port from guys; but a guy might be led from the boom-end to the cat-head on each side. (See plate 32, 
Figs. 1, 2, and 


The SPRIT-SAIL TOP-SAIL YARD, Fig. 261 , 

Which is in use but very rarely, is rigged 1 as follows: The horses (a) are put over the yard-arms 
like the others, and seized to the yard on the opposite sides of the slings. The clue-lino blocks (n) are 
seized in the straps, which sometimes go round the yard; but frequently they have an eye in each end, 
and are seized together like the blocks on the other yards, and often there are thimbles instead of blocks. 


A single block (r) is strapped round the slings of the yard, resting upon the fore or upper part of it: 
another single block (s) is strapped with an eye, and put over the jib-boom end. 

The HALLIARDS (t) are reeved through the block (s), then through the block (r) on the yardand 
the end is clinched round the jib-boom end above the strap, or bent to a becket in the strap of the block 
(s), making a gun-tackle purchase. The lifts (v). go single, with eyes to fit the yard-arms, and they are 
reeved through thimbles (u) strapped with a span round the jib-boom end. 


The braces are led like the sprit-sail braces, under the fore-top.. 


This yard is got across by the same means as the sprit-sail yard was. A top or yard-rope (x) is. 
reeved through a tail-block on the jib-stay for that purpose. The parral goes with ribs and trucks, like 
that mentioned in page 39, for the top-sail yard.. 




* 








































































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Fig. 264 


T 






L1L 



l~eaw 

























































































43 


MIZEN GAFF. 


At the inner end, or throat of the gaff, Fig. 263, jaws (m) are made to receive the after part of the 
try-sail mast, with a bevel proportionable to the stiving of the gaff. To these jaws is fixed a parral 
with trucks (k). An eye-bolt (n) is driven in the upper part of them, and a small one underneath. It 
is there scarfed and hooped. There is an eye-bolt (b) also fitted to the peak end, like the mizen-yard. 
A jack-stay is fitted on the lower part of the gaff to bend, the sail to* The gaff is sometimes slung, and 
sometimes hoisted. It is slung thus, Fig. 264 r 

e 

An eye-bolt (d) is fitted into the iron strap which holds the futtock-shrouds on the after part of the 
mast; on the forward end of the gaff there is a goose-neck, which, after being put into the eye-bolt, is 
keyed. The after part of the gaff has an iron strap, to which is hooked the slings and the guys or 
vangs (d): the slings (b) are hooked on to the after part of the tressle-trees, or to the mizenrcap. In the 
standing gaff, as shown in Fig. 266^ hanks are put over for the head of the sail, and it hauls out with 
an out-hauler (c), through a sheave-hole at the end of the gaff, led through a block (e) hooked into the 
lower part of the tressle-trees. In other cases the sail is bent to' a jack-stay, and is hauled up by brails. 


To get this gaff up for rigging, Fig. 265, the lower block of the mizen top-sail halliards is hooked to 
a selvagee (w) in the middle of it: a tail-tackle is made fast with a double block to.the mizen tressle- 
tree (x), and the tail of the single one is hitched round the throat. In some vessels, the mizen top-sail 
yard is lashed down to the cap; but where the fore part of the cap projects out sufficiently, the bight of 
the tye (y) is taken with a hitch round it;, or the bight of the tye may be taken under the cap between 
the masts, and. put over the fore part of it, like Fig. G. The gaff is hoisted up by the tail-tackle and 
top-sail halliards, and slung as before described.. 


When the gaff traverses up and down the mast, Fig. 266, a double or single block, according to the 
size of it, is strapped with a hook and thimble, and hooked to the eye-bolt in the throat (a): another 
double block (b) is hooked into an eye-bolt in one of the tressle-trees. The fall (c) is reeved alter¬ 
nately through these blocks, and called the THROAT HALLIARD’S. In some ships the upper block 
(b) is hooked to an iron strap round the mizen-mast head. 

The peak halliards are rove like Fig. 266, through a double block (c) at the top-mast cross-trees, 
then through a single block at the end of the gaff, then through the block (c), and back through (e), from 
whence it is led and hooked to the mizen cap. This gaff has on it a jack-stay (f) to bend the sail to. 
The blocks (g) answer either for down-haul or vang blocks. 




44 


GAFF—SPANKER BOOM. 


In large ships there are both peak and throat tyes , Fig. 267; but these are more commonly 
used for the main gaffs of brigs, or of ships which carry fore and aft main-sails (see page 66). A large 
single block (g) is strapped, and lashed round the head of the mast above the rigging, hanging down 
abaft, like the double one in the former page, below the tressle-trees. 

The THROAT TYE (f) is spliced round a thimble in the bolt, at the upper part of the jaws: the 
other end is reeved through the block (g), and has a double block (e) turned into it: this is connected 
by the halliards (d) to a single block (c) hooked to an eye-bolt in the deck, reeving like a luff-tackle. 

The PEAK-TYE (h) is spliced round a thimble on the span (b), reeved through the block at the mast¬ 
head (a), led down through lubber’s-hole on the larboard side, and has a double block (i) turned into 
the lower end: the halliards reeving as before. 

When the gaff is rigged to hoist, there are vangs, and a block (k) is strapped to the bolt in the peak 
end, through which the peak down-hauler (1) is reeved. 

Ships which have their gaffs traverse, carry MIZEN BOOMS, which are rigged like the spanker 
boom. 

The SPANKER BOOM, Fig. 268, 

Has a large bolt and hook, called a Goose-neck (1), nailed and hooped on its inner end. This is hooked 
to an eye, which is hooped round the mizen-mast; but in some ships, the inner end of the boom is fitted 
up with jaws, as described on the gaff, and has a shoulder bolted on the mizen-mast, for it to rest upon. 

The TOPPING LIFTS (m) are doubled sometimes, go over the mizen top-mast head, with a hitch 
above the rigging, and are there seized together. They are served round the bight, and about three or four 
feet below the cross-tr-ees on each side. A single block (n) is spliced into the end of each: and a double 
block (o) is strapped with an eye over the boom end, resting against the shoulder or stop cleat. The bight 
of the fall is middled, and hitched over the boom end without the block (o): the ends are reeved through 
the single blocks (n), then through the double one (o), leading through a thimble fastened by a staple (p) 
to the upper part of the boom on each side, just without the inner ends of the horses (q): they are be¬ 
layed to cleats (d) on each end of the boom within board. 

The HORSES (q) are spliced to thimbles on the bolt at the boom end: diamond, or over-hand knots, 
(see pages 6 and 7) are cast on them: and eyes being spliced in the ends, they are seized to the boom 
just above the taffarel. When there is no bolt in the boom end, they are middled, and seized without 
the shoulder, or stop cleats, round the boom end. 

The SHEET BLOCK (r) is double strapped: the bights of the strap are put over the inner end of 
the boom, and placed between two cleats on the boom, over the horse on deck: a round seizing is then 
clapped on underneath: sometimes the bights of the strap are lashed together above the boom, like the 
blocks on the yards. The end of the sheet (s) is bent to a becket in the strap of the upper sheet block 
(r), with a sheet bend (see page 8) reeved alternately through the upper block (r) and the lower one, 
which is double, and the end is led in upon deck. The lower block (i) is strapped to a thimble on an 
iron horse (h). 

On the topping-lifts (t) are worked two Turks heads (see page 12): a small block is strapped on each 
part between them: through each o r these is reeved a crane line (u): a double wall knot (see page 5) is 
cast on one end of each, and fastened by a staple driven into the fife-rail: the other end is belayed on 
deck. These are for over-hauling the lee topping-lift. 

Another method (more common), Fig. 269, is to have the topping-lifts hooked into a strap on the boom 
end. A single block (v) is lashed on each side of the mizen-mast head, through which the ends of the 
topping-lifts are reeved. A double block (w) is spliced into the end of each, which is connected by 
its fall to a single one (u), hooked to an eye-bolt in the deck.—The hooks are moused with spun-yarn. 




744 -. 




















































































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45 


SPANKER BOOM—TOP-GALLANT MAST. 

—eoo- 

A THIRD METHOD, Fig. 270, 

Is to have a pendent (x), with a hook and thimble spliced into one end, and a single block (y) into the 
other: the hook is put through an eye-bolt in the after part of the mizen cap. A runner (w), having a 
double block (z) spliced in its end, is reeved up through a sheave-hole in the boom, through the block 
(y), and an eye being spliced in the end, it is put over the boom end, resting against the shoulder. A single 
block (v) is strapped on the middle of the boom: and the end of the fall being spliced round the strap, 
is led alternately through the two blocks (z) and (v), and belayedjo a cleat (u) further in on the boom. 

A FOURTH METHOD, Fig. 271. 

The end (g) is put over the boom end with an eye, as before mentioned, or clinched round it: the 
other is led through a single block (h), at the after part of the mizen-mast head, and a single block (a) is 
spliced or turned into it. A double block (b) is lashed on the boom, or strapped round it, resting against a 
stop cleat. The end of the fall is bent to a becket, put over the end of the topping-lift, before the block 
(a) is spliced in ; and being reeved alternately through the blocks (b and a), it is belayed to a cleat on 
the boom, as before; but in some ships, a bull’s-eye or thimble (d) is seized to the topping-lift, and the 
end of the fall, being led through it, is reeved through a block (c) at the mizen-mast head, and belayed 
to a cleat on the mast below. The two first plans are the best, because there is a topping-lift to wind¬ 
ward and to leeward: and therefore there is no occasion to dip the peak on either tack. 


For the guy belonging to this boom, see the Mizen Boom, page 66. 

The booms of BRIGS, SLOOPS and CUTTERS, are rigged in some of these methods. 

TOP-GALLANT MASTS, Fig 272, 

Are rounded all the way from the heel to the hounds: above them there is a long pole (g), rounded to 
the truck. In the heel (i), which is square, there is a hole for the fid; and above it, a sheave-hole for 
the top-rope is cut (k) from the after part of the larboard to the fore part of the starboard side, with a 
groove for the rope to lie in, that it may not be jammed in the top-mast tressle-trees. In the head of the 
mast (1) there is a sheave-hole for the top-gallant tye. A gromet of rope (n) (see page 11) is driven 
over the pole close to the hounds, to keep the rigging from chafing. There is a sheave-hole also near 
the head of the pole (h) for the royal halliards. 

TO GET THIS MAST UP, Fig. 273, 

A small top-block (a) is hooked to the eye-bolt in the top-mast cap, on the larboard side, and the top- 
rope or mast-rope (c), is reeved through it: the fore part of it is over-hauled down between the top-mast 
tressle-trees and the two foremost cross-trees, and before the top (d). It is reeved through the sheave- 
hole in the larboard side, and the end is hitched round the pole and standing part at (f), leaving a suffi¬ 
cient length to cast off, when the mast has entered the tressle-trees and top-mast cap. The bights are 
then well stopped with spun-yarn (e) at different places. 


The mast is swayed up by the top-rope, being guyed off the rim of the top by the men there: and 
when the pole head is sufficiently entered through the cap, the-end is cast off (the mast hanging by the 
stops) and hitched to the eye-bolt in the starboard side of the cap. The stops are then cut, and the 
mast hangs by the top-rope, ready for rigging. The rigging is hoisted up by the girt-lines, like the top¬ 
mast rigging. 


12 





Lawson sc. 

















































47 


FORE TOP GALLANT YARD—JACK BLOCK, &c. 


Tn the Merchant Service the top-gallant back-stay is sometimes led thus, Fig. 278 : A double block 
(s) is strapped with a long strap, like that for the single or lower block of the top-sail halliards: a sin¬ 
gle block (l) is spliced or turned into the end of the back-stay: the end of the fall (u) is clinched round 
the pole-head of the top-gallant mast above the cleats: the other end is reeved through one of the 
sheaves of the double block (s), then through the single one (t), and again through the sheave of the 
lower one (s), leading in upon deck. Thus the fall of the top-gallant back-stay (u) acts as a ROYAL 
BACK-STAY. One fall (if there be a coil long enough) will do for the back-stay on each side: the 
fall is middled, put over the pole-head with a clove hitch (see page 7) and reeved on each side as 
before. 


The TOP-GALLANT YARDS are rounded all the way, Fig. 279. Cleats (a) are nailed on the 
slings and yard-arms, like the top-sail yards. The horses (b) go over the yard-arms in the same man¬ 
ner : clew-line blocks (c) are strapped on the yard just within the cleats as before. In some vessels a 
strap with a thimble (d) is spliced round the yard for the top-gallant tye to bend to; but the tye is gen¬ 
erally a chain hooked to the yard. 

Two straps (e) with eyes, one long the other short, are spliced or seized round the yard for the 
PARRAL ; but parrals are now made like those for the top-sail yard, page 40, Figs. 253 and 253 a. 

The BRACES and SINGLE LIFTS are put on as before: these and the clew-lines are made fast 
to the top-mast cross-trees, to be in readiness when the yard is sent up, it being rigged aloft. The lifts 
are reeved through a thimble seized in between the two foremost top-gallant shrouds, just below, the eye 
seizing. 

The TOP-GALLANT TYE is reeved through the sheave-hole in the top-gallant mast, and hooked 
round the cross-trees till wanted. In the other end a double block is turned or spliced, and a single one 
is strapped to the lower tressle-tree, the halliards are reeved like the top-sail halliards in page 39, Fig. 
250. Sometimes the lower block is strapped to an eye-bolt in the deck, abaft the mast. 

Frequently the tye and halliards are in one, like Fig. 2S0, the tye’ (a) being hitched round the strap 
of the upper (single) block and toggled, to reeve alternately through the lower block (b), at the tressle- 
tree, and the block (a). When the tye leads thus, the toggle being taken out and the fall unreeved, it 
answers for a top-rope to send the yard up and down by; but when the tye and halliards are in two 
parts, the lop-gallant yards are got up as follows: 


A block called a JACK BLOCK, Fig. 281, is strapped with a long and short leg: the short one (c) 
has an eye spliced in the end of it; and a double wall-knot, (see page 5), is cast on the end of the long 
one (d). The former is called the loop , and the latter the button. The strap is placed round the lop-gal¬ 
lant mast, the block lying before, and the knot (d) is thrust through the eye (e). 

The TOP-ROPE (or yard-rope) (e), Fig. 282, is reeved through the block, and. over-hauled down 
upon deck before the top; the leading part through lubber’s hole. The tye (f) is hitched round the strap 
of the block (g): and the men below, hoisting upon the halliards,., trice it up: the halliards are then 
belayed. 


The top-rope is- made fast to the slings of the yard with a fisherman’s-bend (see page 8), and 
stopped to the second quarter on the starboard side with spun-yarn, if the yard be got up on the larboard 
side, and vice versav 



48 


GETTING THE TOP-GALLANT YARDS ACROSS—LEADING THE BRACES. 

—eoo- 

A man (e), Fig. 283, stands on the cross-trees, to put the starboard brace (b) and Kft (d) on the 
yard-arm: the larboard lift (g) has the end of the clew-line bent to it (not being long enough to over-haul 
down below), and the man (f) stands in the larboard top-mast shrouds, to place the larboard brace (a) 
and lift on the larboard yard-arm. The yard is then swayed up by the top-rope (or yard-rope), and 
when high enough, the men put the rigging on, before mentioned: the larboard clew-line is gathered in. 
The top-rope is again swayed upon, and as the yard advances, the man in the cross-trees cuts the stops 

(h) . When the bunt, or slings of the yard, are sufficiently above the top-mast cap, the last stop is cut, 
and the larboard clew-line being hauled upon, the yard falls across, and is squared by the lifts and 
braces. The ends of the lifts are made fast round the cross-trees, the clew-lines reeved through the 
blocks on the yard, and an overhand knot is cast on the end: the eyes of the parral are seized together. 

BRACES. 

The FORE BRACE is sometimes reeved through a block (a), lashed to the collar of the main-stay, 
Fig. 2S4, under the top, then through the block in the pendent or strap, at the yard-arm (b): the end is 
taken back, and hitched round the collar of the stay, below the block (a). The leading part goes down 
by the main-mast, and is reeved through a leading block (z), strapped to an eye-bolt in the deck; but in 
the Merchant Service, the block (a) is more commonly a double one (one sheave-hole being for the fore 
top-sail brace), and is strapped to an eye-bolt hooped round the main-mast head, two or three feet below 
the tressle-trees, the standing part being made fast just below the mouse of the stay. 

The FORE TOP-SAIL BRACE is reeved through a block (n) on the main-stay, just above the 
fore hatchway, then through the block (c), on the collar above the mouse, and through the block in the 
pendent or strap (d) on the yard-arm: the end is hitched, or clinched round the collar of the main-stay, 
above the block. 

A better method for the fore top-sail brace to lead is this, Fig 285 : The end of the standing part 
(after reeving through the blocks g, f, and d), on the main-mast head, stay, and the yard-arm, is made 
fast to the main top-mast stay (e). The two parts of the brace being thus divided, it does not pull the 
yard so much down, when it is hoisted up to the head of the fore top-mast. 

The FORE TOP-GALLANT BRACE (when double), in large ships, is reeved through a block 
seized to the after part of the fore-top (h), through a block seized to the collar of the main top-mast stay 

(i) , then through the brace-block at the yard-arm (k): the end is hitched to the stay collar. When this 
brace goes single, Fig. 286, with an eye over the yard-arm, it is led through a block on the main top¬ 
mast stay, just below the splice, and through a block seized to the upper part of the foremost main top¬ 
mast shroud, close under the rigging. 

In the MERCHANT SERVICE, the fore, fore top-sail, and fore top-gallant braces, are generally led 
down by the main-mast, and belayed together there; but in small vessels they are led through a treble 
block, seized to the foremost main shroud, and belayed to a pin in the rail: so that in “hauling off all” 
they are let go together. 





















































































































/ 







































































































































































49 


BRACES. 


—e*©©— 


The MAIN BRACE, Fig. 287, 

Is reeved out through a sheave-hole (h) in the side of the quarter deck, through the block in the strap 
or pendent at the yard-arm (i), and the end of the standing part is clinched to an eye-bolt in the quarter 


The MAIN TOP-SAIL BRACE is led through a block at the mizen-stay collar (k), or to a block 
strapped to a bolt hooped round the mizen-mast head, then through the block in the strap or pendent (I), 
and the end is hitched to the stay collar. But more frequently the brace blocks (m) at the mizen-mast, 
* lg. 2S8, are spliced in each end of a pendent, which lies with its bight abaft the mizen-mast, and is 
seized to the mizen-stay collar (n). 


This leading of the main top-sail braces to the mizen-mast head, has the effect of canting the yard 
when up at the mast-head, particularly if the main tack be not on board, of course prevents the sail 
standing well. 


In the Merchant Service they often have, on this account, the mizen top-mast made stouter than 
usual, and lead the main top-sail brace to the mizen top-mast head, which causes it to traverse in a more 
horizontal direction; and an additional backstay is also frequently used. At all events, it would perhaps 
be better for the standing part of the brace to be taken to the mizen top-mast head, like that of the fore 
top-sail brace to the main top-mast head, mentioned in the former page. 


The MAIN TOP-GALLANT BRACE, Fig. 287, is reeved up through a block (o) seized to the 
upper part of the foremost mizen top-mast shroud, through another at the mizen top-mast stay collar (p), 
then through the pendent or block at the yard-arm ; and the end is hitched round the stay collar. 

In some coasters which carry few hands, the main, main top-sail and main top-gallant braces lead for¬ 
wards for the convenience of working. 

The CROSS JACK BRACES, Fig. 289, 

When there are pendents, are spliced into an iron strap on the forward part of the yard (q). When 
there are none, the brace block (q) is strapped round a thimble in an eye, which goes round the j T ard with an 
iron strap. The cross jack braces are led forwards: the standing part of the larboard brace (p) is 
hitched to the after main shroud on the larboard side, upon the service, the leading part through the 
block on the yard, and through another on the main shroud (s), seized close under the standing part, 
being led through a double or treble block on the shroud below, and belayed to a cleat on the shroud, 
or fife rail. 

The mizen top-sail and top-gallant braces are also led forwards, and commonly go single: the top¬ 
sail brace is reeved through a double block (u), strapped to an eye-bolt in the after part of the main cap, 
and the top-gallant brace through a block seized to the aftermost main top-mast shroud or back-stay. 

French men-of-war have sometimes two pair of top-sail braces, which are a great security to the 
yard, the upper brace (a), Fig. 290, acting in a more horizontal direction when the yard is at the mast 
head: and when the top-sail is reefed (of course blowing fresh), an equal strain lies on the upper and 
lower brace. This would not answer in the Merchant Service, where there are few hands, as the over¬ 
hauling of two pair of braces would impede the working of the ship. The best substitute is to lead the 
top-sail braces as shown in Fig. 285. 


13 



50 


SAILS. 

—■©©©— 


The names of the sails are derived from the masts to which they are attached: thus the fore-sail is 
named from the fore-mast, the main-sail from the main-mast, the main top-sail from the main top¬ 
mast, &c. 


The SQUARE 

(a) The Foresail. 

(b) The Fore Topsail. 

(c) The Fore Top-gallant sail. 

(d) The Fore Royal and Studding-sail. 

(e) The Fore Studding-sail. 

(f) The Fore Top-mast Studding-sail . 

(g) The Fore Top-gallant Studding-sail. 

(h) The Main-sail. 

(i) The Main Topsail. 

And above the royals on each mast the sky-: 
rakers, and we have heard of as high as fancies, bu 


Figs. 291 and 292, are 

(k) The Main Top-gallant sail. 

(l) The Main Royal and Studding-sails. 

(m) The Main Top-mast Studding-sail. 

(n) The Main Top-gallant Studding-sail. 

(o) The Mizen Topsail or Mizen. 

(p) The Mizen Top-gallant sail. 

(q) The Mizen Royal. 

(r) The Spritsail. 

(s) The Sprit-sail Topsail. 

ils—some ships have even higher, such as moon- 
we think those are imaginative. 


The FORE AND AFT SAILS, are 


(t) 

The 

Jib. 

( z ) 

The 

Main 

Top-gallant Stay-sail. 

(u) 

The 

Fore Top-mast Slay-sail. 

(aa) 

The 

Mizen 

Stay-sail or Trysail. 

(V) 

The 

Fore Staysail or Try-sail. 

(ab) 

The 

Mizen 

Top-mast Staysail. 

(w) 

The 

Main Stay-sail. 

(ac) 

The 

Mizen 

Top-gallant Staysail. 

( x ) 

The 

Main Top-mast Staysail. 

(ad) 

The 

Driver 

or Spanker. 

(y) 

The 

Middle Stay-sail. 




And the Fore and Main Spencers , which we shall describe in page 63. 


Sails are made of canvas, the number and strength of which is determined by the size or use of the 
sail. The strongest canvas is called No. 1, and it decreases gradually to No. 8.* Sails are surrounded 
by a rope called a Boll-rope; but this is of different denominations according as it is sewn to the head, foot 
or leech. Thus, that at the head is called the Head-rope, that at the side, the Leech-rope, and that at the 
foot, the Foot-rope. The foot-rope is the strongest, the leech-rope somewhat less, and the head-rope the 
least. 


Square sails are not so called from their shape, but because they are suspended to yards, their heads 
hanging parallel to their feet, which distinguishes them from the stay-sails, or fore and aft sails. They 
are made of pieces of canvas, called cloths , each piece being two feet in breadth, having generally more 
of these in the foot than in the head. These laying parallel to each other, and perpendicular to the head, 
the breadth of the sail is diminished, by being cut from the lower corners or clews (a), Fig. 293, diago¬ 
nally towards the head (b). This is called goring a sail. 

Sails are frequently gored more or less in the foot, some going with an entire sw T eep or hollow: others 
are gored from a certain cloth on each side, to the clew, as (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6): and others again have the 
foot parallel to the head. 

The FORE-SAIL is attached to the fore-yard, and is in form as represented by Figure 294, in the 
next page. When the mast stands well aft, it is sometimes of equal breadth at the head and foot; but 
more frequently, particularly if the mast be forward, it is a cloth broader at the head than at the foot: 
that is, a cloth on each side is gored, or cut sloping, from the head to the foot, so that it is half a cloth 
broader on each side. Sometimes, instead of this half cloth on each side, the sail is made broader at the 
head, by decreasing the breadth of the seams towards the foot. The shape of the sail must be regu¬ 
lated by the height of the mast, and the squareness of the yard. Ships in the Merchant Service vary as 
to these proportions, some having taunt lower masts and narrow yards, others short masts and square 
yards, and others again, in a medium between the two former. 


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51 


FORESAIL. 

—©©©— 

The cloths have one side laid over the other, and are sewn together in the Navy with waxed 
twine; but in the Merchant Service the twine is generally dipped in tar, softened with oil. Previously 
to the sail being stitched to the bolt-rope, it is hemmed pretty broad, by doubling it down : and this is 
called tabling (a), Fig 294. Holes are cut through the tabling at the head of the sail, and small gromets 
made to the size of them are worked with log-line. These are fitted to the holes, and worked round 
with twine. 

A REEF-BAND (b), which is a piece of canvas one-third or one-fourth of the breadth of the cloth, 
is sewn across the sail at a proper distance, according to the depth of it. Holes similar to those in the 
head of the sail, and small gromets fitted to the size of them, - are worked into this band, for the points 
to reeve through. Some sail-makers put two holes in each cloth; but others place one in each cloth, and 
one in each seam. 

Opposite to the reef-band on each side, in the leech-rope, a gromet (c), called a Cringle , is worked 
thus: a strand of good rope (C), Fig. 295, is taken out, of a sufficient length: a hole being made in the 
tabling in the band, this strand is reeved through it, and through two of the strands in the leech-rope (a), 
then through the hole (b), in the same manner; and one part is laid over, till it resembles the rope (as 
described in making a gromet, page 11), the ends being pushed through between the strands of the leech- 
rope, as in splicing. 

The earing cringle (d), Fig. 294, is made by the leech rope being spliced into itself. 

In the middle of the sail, a cringle, called the Upper Bow-line Cringle (e), is passed through the strands, 
and laid up as before, but not put through the tabling. Half way between this and the foot, another is 
worked in the same manner, called the Lower Bow-lime Cringle (f): and, at equal distances in the foot, 
are two or more cringles (g), called BUNT-LINE CRINGLES. All these cringles are now generally 
worked round thimbles. 

The CLEWS (h) are now made of iron, as in the plate (h), Fig. 294. (K) is bent into the horse¬ 

shoe form, with an eye at each end, in which there are two thimbles, to which the leech and foot ropes 
are spliced ; across this clew there is an iron bar, round which the clew-garnet or clew-line blocks are 
strapped: this is the most approved plan. The tacks and sheet blocks, if double, are hooked into this 
clew; if single, the tack and sheet itself are hooked and moused. 

In the wake of the bunt-line cringles, additional canvas (i) is stuck on these are called Bunt-line Cloths * 

Additional canvas (k), called the Lining , is also stitched on the leeches, the breadth of a cloth: these, 
and the bunt-line cloths, are placed on the fore part of the sail, and when half worn, an additional cloth, 
called a middle ba?id, is sewn across the sail between the bow-line cringles- 




52 


FORE SAIL GEER. 


When this sail is to be bent to the yard, it is brought upon the fore-castle, and laid athwart over the 
main-stay, for that purpose; and if the .sail is made according to the old plan, the CLEW-GARNET 
BLOCK (1), Fig 296, is put through the clew and seized. This block, Fig.. 298, is strapped with two 
legs, which are reeved through the holes in the shoulder of the block, and the round seizing clapped on. 
An eye is spliced in the end of each leg: these are put through the clew on the after side, brought round 
it up again, and they are then seized together, as represented in the Figure. 

A large single block, called the Fore Sheet Bloch (m), Fig. 296, has its strap put over the clew, the 
block laying aft for the fore sheet (p) to reeve through. 

The FORE TACK (n) if single, is a cable-laid rope, generally tapered in the making; and on the 
thick end, a double walled knot, double crowned (see page 5) is cast. The small end being put through 
the clew, (the knot laying aft), is reeved through the block at the boomkin end, and led in upon the fore¬ 
castle. The tack is served sufficiently for lying in the block, when it is either eased off or hauled close 
down. In small vessels in the Merchant Service, the tack is often slack-laid with four strands, having a 
spindle eye (see page 4) worked in the end, which is reeved through the clew, and a toggle put in: and 
as they carry no boomkin, the tack is taken under the after side of the cat-head, and belayed to the tim¬ 
ber-head before it. 

When the fore tack goes double, the block is sometimes seized into the clew, like Fig. 300 (a); but 
frequently a sprit-sail sheet knot (see page 6) is made on the two ends of the strap of the block (i), Fig. 
297, and thrust through it, laying aft. For the leading in of the tacks and sheets , seepage 57. 

The BUNT-LINE LEGS, in men-of-war, are reeved through a shoe-block (p), Fig. 299. One end 
is reeved through the inner sheave-hole of a double block (q), seized to the after part of the top, through 
another at the fore part (r), then through the outer bunt-line block on the yard (s), leading down before 
the sail, and is bent to the outer cringle on the foot: the outer sheaves of these blocks are left for the 
leech-line. The other leg is reeved through the outer sheave-holes of the blocks (o and p), through the 
inner bunt-line block on the yard (v), and bent to the inner cringle at the foot of the sail. The inner 
sheave-holes of the blocks (o and p) are left for the sprit-sail braces. The bunt-lines are led in the same 
manner on the starboard side. The FALL (w) is led through the lower sheave-hole of the block (p), 
and one end is hitched to an eye-bolt in the deck. 

In the Merchant Service, two single bunt-lines are preferred to the leg and fall, the shoe-block scarcely 
permitting the foot of the sail to be hauled close up, and the weight of it preventing the bunt-line from 
overhauling, and hanging slack before the sail. 

The BOW-LINE BRIDLE (x), Fig. 300, is clinched to the upper cringle (y), reeved through a thim¬ 
ble spliced in the end of the bow-line (z), and then clinched to the lower bow-line cringle. The bow-line 
is for hauling the weather leech of the sail forward. For the leading of it, see page 57. In the Merchant 
Service, if fore bow-lines went with toggles, they would be found to answer in wear and tear; because, 
when going long on one tack, the lee bow-line might be cast off; by which means the sail would not be 
chafed by its flapping against it, which, in wet weather, is often found to be the case. 

The SLAB-LINE is reeved through a block (b) which hangs underneath the yard, abaft the sail; 
and this is sometimes strapped to the strap of one of the quarter blocks: another piece is spliced into it, 
forming the span (c), one leg of which is bent to the inner bunt-line cringle on each side. 

The clew-garnet (d) is reeved through its block on the yard (e), through the block at the clew, and 
the end is hitched round the yard. 






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53 


BENDING THE FORE SAIL. 


—e©©— 

The LEECH-LINES, Fig. 301, 

Are reeved through the outer sheave-holes of the outer blocks, under the top. The leech-lines (e) are 
reeved through these blocks, then through the blocks (f) on the yard; and the ends are clinched to the 
upper bow-line cringles (g).—(d), the bunt-lines. 

Spun or rope yarns are put into the gromet-holes at the head, to bend the sail to the jack-stay. 

The POINTS are frequently of one piece, and being reeved through the eyelet-holes in the reef-band, 
an overhand knot is cast on, on each side of the sail; they are also often made with two legs, having 
each an eye in one end, Fig. A, but worked long, which will admit a turn to be taken in them, (like Fig. 
B), when put through the sail, making them double the thickness. The eye of the point is put through in the 
reef-band, Fig. 303, on one side of the sail, and the other through the same hole on the other side: the 
eye of the point (c) having a turn taken in it, as before-mentioned, the end of the point (b) is put through 
it, and the end of the point (c) through the eye of the point (b), in the same manner: and commonly 
the eyes are made the usual size: the end of the point, Fig. C, is put through its own eye, forming a 
larger bight; and the ends of each point being reeved through the eyelet-hole, are then put through the eyes 
of each other. Points are now made of Manilla rope. 

A line, called an Earing (n), Fig. 304, is spliced into the head cringle, on each side. When the 
geer is bent, a tail block (o) is lashed on each boom-iron, at the yard-arm: and a rope (p), called a Yard 
Rope, is reeved through it, and bent to the reef-cringle (m). The bunt-lines (b) are stopped to the head 
of the sail, by hitching a rope-yarn round each. The head earings (n) are hitched to the yard-rope (p) 
for the men at the yard-arms to reach them more conveniently. The men go on the yard, and the sail 
is hauled up to it by the yard-ropes, bunt-lines and clew-garnets. 

The men at the yard-arms haul the head of the sail to an equal distance on each side, taking two 
turns with the earing (a), Fig. 305, round the yard, without the stop-cleats, and through the cringles (c); 
then as many turns (b) within the cleats as will expend the whole earing. The two outer turns (a) are 
sufficient, being merely for the purpose of keeping the head of the sail on the stretch; whereas the inner 
turns (b) have the strain of the tack, sheet, and bow-line to sustain. 

The head of the sail is then hauled well upon the yard, and bent to the jack-stay by rope or spun- 
yarn. The yard-ropes (p) are then cast off, unreeved, and the tail-blocks taken from the boom-irons. 
The sail is now let fall: the bunt-lines and leech-lines are overhauled, to see that every thing is bent 
clear; and the gaskets (see page 11) are made fast to the yard. The BUNT-GASKET is generally 
made with three legs, like Fig. L); but, if a long leg be worked with an eye in the bight, Fig. 306, hav¬ 
ing a thimble (d) seized in it, other legs (b) may be reeved through it, and their ends made fast to the 
yard. 

When the sail is to be furled, the men on the yard haul it up, leaving enough of the head part (a), 
Fig. 307, hanging in a bight (which is called a Skin), to cover the folds. When it is all gathered up, 
this part (a) is brought over the rest, and all the men exerting themselves at the same time, toss it well 
on the top of the yard. The gaskets are then passed, being brought up before the sail, and taken round 
the yard and sail. Care must be taken that the gaskets be taken clear of the top-sail sheets. The 
bunt-gasket, Fig. 306, is passed thus: the middle leg is taken round the strap of the slings, and the end 
reeved through the thimble (d), by which a good purchase is got, to lilt the sail well on the yard. 

The FORE TOP-SAIL, 

Is bent to the fore top-sail yard: its shape depends on the squareness of that, and of the fore yard, to 
which the clew or lower corners are extended; lor which purpose, the cloths at the leech are gored. 

14 




54 


FORE TOP SAIL. 

—eo©— 



This sail, Fig. 308, has two, three, or four reef-bands (a) at equal distances, with cringles (b), the 
same as the fore-sail. There are three bow-line cringles (c), the upper one of which is in the middle of 
the sail: and there is a cringle for the reef-tackle pendent (d) between the lower reef and upper bow¬ 
line cringle. In the Merchant Service, the reel-bands are not always placed at equal distances, some 
masters choosing to have a greater space between the second and third reef. On the aft side of the sail, 
there is a lining, sometimes cut in steps, (which will be shown in page 56, Fig. 317), called a Top Lining, 
to prevent the sail’s chrfing, when flapping against the top: and sometimes the middle part of this lining 
is carried up to the lower reef-band, and called a Mast Lining. In the Merchant Service, these linings 
are generally objected to; for it has been found by experience, that rain water, lodging between the two 
parts of the canvas, is apt to rot the sail. This sail is marled to the clews, as the fore-sail was, which 
is served two feet or more on each side, and also at the foot, in the wake of the top-lining. Spun-yarn 
is put in at the head and points in all the reef-bands, as those in the fore-sail were. (See page 53, for 
Bending the sail.) 

In the Merchant Service, patches (g) are frequently clapped on in the wake of the reef-tackle and 
bow-line cringles, the strain on the first being very powerful when hauled out to reef the sail, and on the 
last, when going by the wind. 

The geer for this sail is bent in the top, except the bow-line bridles and earings , which are generally 
put in upon deck. When it is brought on deck to be bent, the sail is opened out, to see that it has 
received no damage from rats or water, also that no points be wanting. The earings are spliced into the 
head and reef-cringles, Fig. 309. The end of the first reef-earing (g) is hitched to the head cringle: the 
end of the second (h), to the first reef-cringle: and the end of the third reef-earing (i), to the second reef- 
cringle. 

As there are three bow-line cringles, so there are two bridles: the longest of which has an eye spliced 
in one end. The upper end of the short bridle (k) is clinched to the upper cringle: the other end is 
reeved through the thimble in the lower bridle (1), and clinched to the middle cringle (m). The long 
bridle (1) is reeved through a thimble spliced in the end of the bow-line (n), and clinched to the lower 
cringle (o). N. B. The long bridle is left to be reeved through the thimble in the bow-line , when the sail is in 
the top. 

The sail is then made up again, and the clews laid out. A pair of slings are laid upon deck, and 
the sail is placed on them in fakes, Fig. 310, with the starboard side uppermost, if it be sent up on the 
larboard side, as in the Figure, and vice versa. The top-sail tye (p) is sometimes stopped and racked 
to the aftermost top-mast shroud; but as this is reckoned by some a great strain on the shroud, the 
bight of the tye is often taken round the top-mast cap (as mentioned in page 43). The lower block of 
the top-sail halliards (q) is hooked to the slings, and the sail is hoisted into the top (r), taken round the 
fore part of the mast, and opened out. The stop of the tye is then cast off, and the lower block of the 
halliards hooked to the channel, as before. 

The CLEW-LINE BLOCKS are fitted the same as the clew-garnet blocks of the fore-sail. (See 
page 52). 

The clew-lines, Fig. 311, on each side, are reeved through the blocks on the top-sail yards, then 
through the blocks at the clew (r), and the ends are hitched round the yard, without the blocks: the 
leading parts (t) go through the lubber’s hole. 

The TOP-SAIL SHEETS, w^hich generally are chains long enough to lead below the quarter blocks, 
from which they are of rope, to the deck, are hooked into the clews with sister hooks; or, if all of rope, 
the top-sail sheet having a double walled knot, double crowned (see page 5) on the end, is thrust through 
the clew, the knot (u) lying aft. The sheet is served to prevent its chafing in the blocks, and against 
the lower yard : it is reeved through the sheave-hole at the lower yard-arm (w), then through the quarter 
block (x), lying under the yard at the sling cleats, and through a sheave-hole in the top-sail sheet bitts. 

The reef-tackle pendent is clinched to the cringle, and leads as described in pages 39 and 55. 





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55 


t 


FORE TOP SAIL GEER. 

—©©©— 

A top-sail sheet has sometimes a small clinch on the end of the top-sail sheet, which is not so apt to 
neck as the knot. 


The TOP-SAIL SHEETS, 

Sometimes lead double, Fig. 312. The sheet on this account is smaller, and has a hook and thimble 
(v) spliced in its lower end: this is hooked to the strap on the yard-arm; the other end is reeved through 
a block (w) which is hooked in the clew of the sail, then through a sheave-hole (or block) in the yard¬ 
arm, and through the quarter block (t), leading down as before. 


The REEF-TACKLE PENDENTS, 

Also often go double, Fig 312. The pendent is reeved through the sheave-hole in the yard-arm as before, 
then through a block (a), which is seized to the cringle; the end is clinched round the yard-arm: and in 
merchant ships, where there are few hands, a block (b), Fig. 313, is strapped round the yard-arm: 
another (c) to the cringle, and a third (d) to the top. The pendent reeves through the block (d) at the 
top, the block (b) at the yard-arm, the block (c) at the cringle, and the end is clinched round the yard¬ 
arm as before. When the sail (after being close reefed) is handed, the weather reef-tackle being boused 
taught, acts as a rolling tackle. 


The BUNT-LINE, Fig. 314, 

Is reeved through the block (e) lashed on each side under the cross-trees; the block (f) at the strap of 
the tye block, and (leading before the sail) is clinched to the cringle (g) at the foot. In the Merchant 
Service, monkey-blocks (see page 14) are often nailed on the yard (h): the bunt-lines in this case are not 
taken to the mast head;. but they are reeved through these blocks, and bent to the cringles in the foot 
of the sail, like the dotted line. In the former method, it is thought they prevent the yard coming down 
readily; but in the latter mode, they act as down-haul tackles, and have equally the effect of spilling 
the sail. The principal objection to the monkey-blocks is, that the bunt-lines do not overhanl so well; 
for when the yard is at the mast head, their weight lies directly from the yard to the deck. 


Another way, is to lead the bunt-lines like Fig. 315. A block strapped with two legs (e) is lashed 
on the yard, hanging underneath it, abaft the sail. An eyelet-hole with a brass thimble is worked in 
a patch (f) just below the third reef: and the bunt-line (g) is led through the block (e), the thimble (f), 
and bent to the foot cringle as before. The sail may thus be easily spilled for handing, and the bunt¬ 
line cannot chafe it, except in the wake of the bunt-line cloth* 


The sail is hauled up to the yard by the reef-tackles, (as the fore-sail was by the yard-ropes), the 
bunt-lines and clew-lines. The bunt-lines are stopped to the head of the sail by rope-yarns, and the 
earings passed like those of the fore-sail. (See page 53). 




56 


FORE TOP SAIL—FORE TOP GALLANT SAIL. 


—e©©— 


The clew-lines and bunt-lines being eased off, the sheets are hauled home to the yard-arms: the sail 
is then hoisted up by the halliards to see if all be bent clear. When hoisted, the fore part will appear 
like Fig. 216, and the after part like Fig. 317* 


Fig 316. 

(a) The Bunt-lines. 

(b) The Bunt-line Cloths. 

(c) The Leech-linings. 

(d) The Reef-hands with Points. 

(e) The Bow-lines and Bridles. 

(f) The Toj)-sail Sheet Blocks, or Sheave-hole. 

(g) The Reef-tackle Pendents. 

(h) The Jewel Blocks. 


Fig. 317. 


<0 

The 

Clew-lines. 

00 

The 

Braces. 

(0 

The 

Mast and Top-linings. 

(m) 

The 

to 

I 

(n) 

The 

Quarter Blocks. 

(°) 

The 

Top. 

(q) 

The 

Lower Lifts. 


Top-sails in men-of-war are square at the foot, like Fig. 316: but in merchantmen they are often 
gored. The gored foot is made to prevent its chafing against the lower stay; but a deal of wind is lost 
by it. If the squared foot, and also the lower stay, be well leathered, in light winds when the sail is 
liable to flap, the foot resting every time against the stay, will not permit the sail to come with any vio¬ 
lence against the top rim. The sail is lowered down, clewed up, and handed as the fore-sail was. 
(See page 53, where also see Points and Gaskets.) 


The FORE TOP-GALLANT SAIL, Fig. 318, 

Is bent to the fore top-gallant yard. The leeches are gored to spread at the foot to the top-gallant sheet 
blocks (g), (or sheave-holes) at the top-sail yard-arms: the foot is squared in the Navy, but in the Mer¬ 
chant Service gored as the top-sail was. 


This sail is often bent on deck, before the yard is sent up; but if not, the clew-lines (h), Fig. 319, 
(having ropes bent to them to give them length), are over-hauled down: and it is hoisted by them into 
the cross-trees, where the men lay it fair for bending. This sail, Fig. 318, has two bow-line cringles on 
each side, (the upper one being in the middle of the leech-rope), to which the bridles (a) are bent, hav¬ 
ing an eye seized in the bight: the bow-line (b) has a toggle in the end, which is thrust through it. 


The BUNT-LINE (c), 

Is reeved through a block (d) at the top-gallant mast head, and through a thimble seized to the strap of 
the top-gallant tye; another piece being spliced into it, forms a span (e), each leg of which is clinched 
to the cringles (f), at the foot. 

The TOP-GALLANT SHEET, Fig. 320, 

Is, if of chain, hooked into the clew; or having a double wall-knot cast on the end, is thrust through the 
clew (a). Sometimes it is made fast to the clew with a sheet bend (see page 8), and the end is stopped 
to the standing part. If the CLEW-LINE be led double, a block (b) is seized to the clew: the clew¬ 
line is reeved through the block on the yard (c), through the block (b), and the end is made fast round 
the yard without the block (e). The single clew-line is taken up through the top, reeved through the 
block (d), and bent to the clew. 


The geer being bent, rope-yarns are hitched round the bunt-line legs as before: the men go on the 
yard and bend the sail as they did the top-sail. The sail is then handed, having one long gasket on 
each side, and another shorter in the bunt. 






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57 


BOW LINES, SHEETS, &c. 

—— 

The MAIN-SAIL has its geer bent like the fore-sail: it is larger than the latter, and wider at the 
foot than the head, having a cloth on each side gored for that purpose. It has three bow-line cringles 
(a), Fig. 321. 

The MAIN TOP-SAIL is bent and rigged like the fore top-sail (see page 54); but it has sometimes 
four reefs, and in men-of-war four bow-line cringles, consequently three bridles, the middle and lower one 
having an eye and thimble spliced in the end of each, leading thus:—The upper bridle (g), Fig. 322, is 
clinched to the upper cringle, reeved through the thimble in the end of the middle bridle (h), and clinched 
to the second cringle (i): the middle bridle (h) is reeved through the thimble in the end of the lower bri¬ 
dle (k), and clinched to the third cringle (1): the lower bridle (k) is reeved through a thimble in the end 
of the bow-line (m), and clinched to the fourth cringle (n). 

The clinch is made like Fig. N: the end of the bridle is reeved through the cringle (f), taken round the 
standing part (e), forming a circle; two round seizings (d) are then clapped on.—N. B. The clinch on any 
rope is always made less than the cringle , Sfc. through which the rope is reeved. 

The MIZEN TOP-SAIL has only two reefs, and three, and sometimes two bow-line cringles. The 
main and mizen top-gallant sails are rigged like the fore top-gallant sails. 

In men-of-war, where the main bunt-lines go with shoe-blocks, they lead forwards, like Fig. 323. 

In order to show how the how-lines , taclcs and sheets of these sails lead, their profiles or leeches are 
given, Figure 324. 

The FORE BOW-LINE is reeved through a block (o) which is lashed to the fore stay collar, or 
sometimes strapped to an eye-bolt in the bow-sprit close to it, leading in upon the fore-castle. The 
fore bow-line in the Merchant Service frequently goes with a toggle, as before mentioned: so that when 
going long on one tack, the lee one is cast of, which prevents it from chafing the sail. 

The FORE TOP BOW-LINE (b) is reeved through a block (c), strapped to an eye-bolt in the bow¬ 
sprit cap, leading in on the fore-castle as before. 

The FORE TOP-GALLANT BOW-LINE (d) is reeved through a thimble strapped to the jib-boom 
end. It is not much used now. 

The FORE TACK (f) is led through the blocks (e) strapped round the boomkin end, through the 
block (m) at the clew, and the end is hooked to the boomkin end: the other end is taken in on the fore¬ 
castle. 

The FORE SHEET (g) is reeved through a sheave-hole in the side, at the after part of the waist, 
(or through a snatch-block lashed there for that purpose); then through the block (h) at the clew of the 
sail; the end is hooked to an eye-bolt in the side (n). 

The MAIN BOW-LINE (i) is reeved through a double block (k) lashed to the after side of the fore¬ 
mast: the starboard bow-line is belayed on the larboard side, and the larboard bow-line on the starboard 
side. In small ships in the Merchant Service, a thimble is seized into the lower bow-line bridle; one 
end of the bow-line is made fast to the cross-piece or belfry, and the other being reeved through the 
thimble in the bridle, is belayed to the cross-piece, so that it is unreeved every tack. 

The MAIN TOP BOW-LINE (1) is reeved through a block (m) seized to an eye-bolt in the after 
part of the fore cap, (or lashed round the fore-mast head above the rigging) leading down through the 
top. 

The MAIN TOP-GALLANT BOW-LINE (o) is reeved through a block (p) lashed to the fore top¬ 
mast cross-trees; sometimes the space between the after part of the fore top-mast tressle-trees is filled 
up with a chock, having four sheave-holes, two for the main top-gallant bow-lines, and two for the braces, 
when they lead forward. 


15 




58 


ROYALS—SPRIT-SAIL, &c. 

— Q&Q— 


The MIZEN BOW-LINE, when a cross-jack or mizen is used, is led to the main rigging. 

The MIZEN TOP BOW-LINE (q) is reeved through a block (r) seized to the aftermost main shroud 
under the futtock stave, and through another (s) seized to the same about six feet from the deck. It is 
sometimes reeved through a block seized to the main tressle-tree, or after part of the main top. 

The MIZEN TOP-GALLANT BOW-LINE (t) (seldom used in small vessels), is reeved through 
a sheave-hole in the aftermost main top-mast cross-tree, or through a small block or thimble seized there. 

The ROYAL YARDS are now rigged across. The sails are bent to the yards before the yards are 
sent aloft for sea service. Ships which carry pole top-gallant masts, as shown in Fig. 274, have frequently 
in addition what is called sliding gunter sky-sail masts, which are small spars secured to the royal- 
mast head by a boom iron, and resting in an iron heel on the after part of the top-gallant mast: the heel 
is also lashed. 

In small vessels the royals, Fig. 326, are set flying; that is, they are not rigged across, having 
neither lifts nor braces, (though sometimes the latter); but the sail being bent to the yard with rope- 
bands made of sennit, the halliards, which are reeved through the sheave-hole in the pole head of the 
top-gallant mast, are overhauled down on deck, hitched to the slings of the yard, and stopped to the 
starboard yard-arm (if the yard be sent up on the larboard side), like the top-gallant yard (see p. 57), and 
it is hoisted up by them. The boy at the mast head having cut the stops, secures it to the top-gallant 
yard by a becket for that purpose, and the clews are lashed to the top-gallant yard-arms. If it be not 
set at the time it is got up, the halliards are unbent and made fast to the top-gallant stay, that they may 
not impede the top-gallant yard, when lowering down; but if it be set, and the fore top-gallant stay (b) 
go with a traveller, the stay is let go, and the halliards being hoisted on, it traverses up with the royal 
yard by the traveller (c), to which it is spliced. When the sail is up, the stay is set hand taught. If 
the stay do not go with a traveller, the royal yard and of course one of the sheets must be shifted over it. 

The SPRIT-SAIL, Fig 327, is bent to the sprit-sail yard with earings and rope-bands, as the other 
square sails were. This sail is neither gored at the foot nor the leeches; the reef-bands (a) are not 
sewed athwart parallel to the head tabling, but diagonally from the leech to the head. There are two 
bunt-line cringles (c) at the foot: and as this sail, from its situation under the bowsprit, is liable to be 
immersed in the water, there is a hole (d) called a Water-hole, cut and stitched round, in each side, to let 
the water off, that it may not lodge in the bag of the sail.— This sail, as well as the yard, are now in many 
ships laid aside; but they would be found most essential to ware a ship, should any accident happen to the fort- 
mast, &fc. [Sprit-sails are getting very scarce]. 

The SPRIT-SAIL SHEET (e), when, double, has a strap-bound block (like a clew-line block): the 
ends of the strap are thrust through the holes in the cheeks, and a sprit-sail sheet knot (see page 6) is 
cast on the two ends: a round seizing is clapped on between the block and the knot, and the knot is thrust 
through the clew. The sheet (e) is reeved through this block, and the standing part made fast to an 
eye-bolt in the bows. When the SHEET is single (f), it has a double walled knot double crowned (see 
page 5) cast on one end, which is thrust through the clew (i), or otherwise it is bent to the clew with a 
sheet-bend (see page 8), and the end stopped to the standing part, leading in on the fore-castle. 

The CLEW-LINE BLOCKS (g) (if the clew-lines be double), are seized to the clews like those of 
the other square sails. (See clew-garnet block, page 52). The clew-line is reeved through the block on 
the yard (h), through the block at the clew (g), and the end is hitched round the yard without the block 
(h), leading in on the fore-castle. If they lead single, they are reeved through the blocks on the yard, 
and bent to the clews (i). 

The BUNT-LINES are reeved through small blocks (k), strapped on each side of the bowsprit, then 
through thimbles or blocks (l) on the yard, and the ends are clinched to the cringles (c) at the foot. 
When going by the wind, the sprit-sail yard is topped up by the lee brace, (suppose the larboard one): 
the sail is then obliged to be reefed to prevent its dragging in the water: when reefed, it will appear 
like Fig. 328, which shows the fore side. 







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59 


SPRIT-SAIL—TOPSAILS—STAY-SAILS. 

—©QS©— 


The SPRIT-SAIL TOP-SAIL (which is among the rare things), depends in shape on the sprit-sail 
top-sail yard: and it is gored sufficiently to spread the clews to the sprit-sail yard-arms. This sail, Fig. 
329, is bent with rope-bands and earings; but it has no reef-bands. Sometimes when the sjprit-sail lifts 
go double, they have hooks in the ends, which, when this sail is not set, are hooked to eye-bolts (o) in the 
bowsprit cap; but when the sprit-sail top-sail is set, they are hooked to thimbles in the clews (1), and 
act as sprit-sail top-sail sheets. When the lifts (n) go single, a thimble is strapped on the sprit-sail yard¬ 
arm (m), and another at the slings of the yard (t), and a sheet is reeved like a top-gallant sheet. 

The clew-lines (p) are reeved through thimbles or blocks (q) without the slings of the yard, and bent 
to the clews, as before. 

This sail is often set flying, with a very short yard (r), Fig. 330; for this purpose, a horse or jack- 
stay (s) is clinched round the end of the jib-boom, having an iron traveller on it (t): and it is set up with 
a luff-tackle hooked to a thimble (u) spliced in the inner end, leading in on the fore-castle. The yard 
(r) is seized to the traveller, and the clews to the sprit-sail yard-arms. When the sail is taken in, it is 
furled in with the sprit-sail, as the royal is with the top-gallant sail. The halliards (x) are single: they 
are led through a block (y) at the jib-boom end, and belayed on the fore-castle. An in-hauler (v) is 
bent to the yard, and is also led on the fore-castle. 

The FORE STAY-SAIL, Fig. 331, is triangular, and holes being worked in the tabling of the head 
or stay part, it is bent to hanks on the fore spring stay (a), made of ash or iron, and sometimes of rope. 
This sail is regularly gored on the stay part: the after leech and foot are not gored. At the upper clew, 
which is called the Peak , a block (b) is seized for the halliards. To the foremost clew, which is called 
the Tack , a laniard is spliced, which is made fast by passing it alternately through the heart (c) and the 
foremost clew. At the tack (c), clue (d) and peak (b), a patch of additional canvas is sewn. 

The down-hauler (f) is reeved through a block (e) seized to the tack clew, through a few hanks at 
the lower clew, and through a few at the head, bending to the peak, and sometimes like that in the next 
Figure. 

The halliards (g) are reeved through a block, (h) which is lashed round the fore-mast head above the 
rigging, or under the collar of the fore-stay, through the block (b) at the peak, and the end is clinched 
round the mast head. A single block (i) is turned into the other end : a fall (k) is reeved through a lead¬ 
ing block (l), through the block (i), and the end is clinched to an eye-bolt in the side. This sail is seldom 
used in any ships but men-of-war. 

The SHEETS are made with a pendent, the bight of which is put through the clew, and the ends 
through the bight: this has the same appearance as a reef-knot:, the two parts are then seized together 
with a throat seizing. (See page 9). Sometimes they are made fast with a sheet bend to the clew (see page 
8), and the parts seized together, as before. A single block (m) is spliced into the end of each pendent: 
a sheet (n) is reeved through each of these, one end of which is clinched to an eye-bolt in the side, and 
the other taken through a leading block, belayed to a cleat in the side. 

Th2 FORE TOP-MAST STAl r -SAIL, Fig. 332, 

Is seized to hanks on the fore top-mast spring stay. The halliards (q), in large ships, are reeved through 
a cheek-block on the larboard side of the fore top-mast head: they are eiffier bent to the peak or reeved 
through a block (n) seized to it, the end being clinched round the mast head. In the other end a single 
block is turned, the fall reeving like that above mentioned for the fore stay-sail. In the Merchant Ser¬ 
vice, when there are no cheek-blocks at the mast head, the halliards are reeved through one of the sheave- 
holes ofthe double blocks, which hang on each side of the mast head, under the rigging (see page 27, Fig. 
190), or through blocks lashed for that purpose under the fore part of the fore top-mast tressle-trees. 
They go single, leading through a block in the side, as before. 

The sheets go with pendents, like the fore stay-sail sheets, leading clear over the fore stay; but in 
smaller vessels they lead single, being reeved through a block on the fore-castle. 

The down-hauler is led through a block (p) strapped to the tack clew, and either through a few hanks 
like the fore stay-sail down-hauler, or through a thimble (o) strapped to the head rope. 




GO 


JIB, <fec. 


The JIB-STAY leads according to the form of the traveller on the boom. If it be made like Fig. 
333, having a shackle (p) with a roller in it at the top, the stay is clinched round the mast head, or put 
over it with an eye: the other end is reeved through the shackle in the traveller (p), Fig. 334, and through 
the sheave-hole in the end of the jib-boom (o): a double, or a long tackle block (q) is turned into the end, 
which is connected by its fall (r) to a single block (n) strapped to an eye-bolt in the fore part of the bow¬ 
sprit cap, or to a bolt in the bows, leading in upon the fore-castle. In this case, there is no occasion for 
an out-hauler, this answering the purpose of both stay and out-hauler. 

When the traveller is made like Fig, 335, having a shackle (s) without a roller, a hook (t) within the 
shackle, and a thimble (u) between the hook and shackle; then the stay is reeved through the upper 
cheek-block on the starboard side of the fore top-mast head, (or in the Merchant Service through the sheave 
of a double block, hanging under the rigging, (see page 27), or lashed to the tressle tree), and is clinched 
to the thimble (u) on the traveller, Fig. 336. In the other end, a single or double block is turned, con¬ 
nected by a fall to a single one, strapped to the lower tressle-tree, leading down through the top. In 
smaller vessels it goes with a single whip, one end being made fast to the tressle-tree. 

An out-hauler (v) is reeved through the sheave-hole in the boom end, clinched to the shackle on the 
traveller, and set up with a long tackle-block, as above mentioned, to the bowsprit cap or bows. [But 
few vessels have travellers or out-haulers, the stay being led through the boom.— Am. Ed.~\ 

The JIB, Fig. 337, 

Is a triangular sail, bent to the hanks on the jib-stay. This sail, in the Navy, is generally gored at the 
foot upwards from the tack to the clew; but in the Merchant Service it is often cut with a gore down¬ 
wards (a) at the foot, and this is called a Roach Gore. If there be a hook on the traveller, a thimble is 
seized in the taclc clew, and the hook put through it. The DOWN-HAULER is reeved through a small 
block (b) seized to the traveller, up through a few hanks at the head and foot, or thimbles (w) seized to 
the head-rope, and made fast to the peak, the other end leading in on the fore-castle. The IN-IJAULER 
(c) is reeved through another block (d), seized to the traveller: and the end is made fast to an eye-bolt 
in the bowsprit cap, the other end leading in on the fore-castle. Small ships have no in-hauler, the 
down-hauler answering both purposes. 

The SHEETS go with pendents, which are bent to the clew as before mentioned, for the fore stay¬ 
sail; single blocks (f) are spliced in the ends: the sheets (g) are reeved through these, one end of each 
being clinched to an eye-bolt in the bows, and the other led through a leading-block, or a hole in a tim¬ 
ber-head on the fore-castle. These sheets^are passed clear over the fore top-mast stay (h). 

The HALLIARDS are reeved through the lower cheek-block at the starboard side of the fore top¬ 
mast head (or in the Merchant Service through a block put over the mast head under the rigging, or other¬ 
wise seized to the fore top-mast tressle-trees), and in large ships through a block (i) seized to the peak 
clue: the end is clinched round the mast head. The other end leading down abaft the top, is reeved 
through a block strapped to an eye-bolt in the side. 

Although the jib-boom is secured by the guys leading over the sprit-sail yard (see page 31), yet as the 
tendency of the jib, when set, is to lift the boom upwards , it is steadied down thus: two large iron staples, 
or caps, are driven into the fore side of the bowsprit cap: a bar (k), called a Dolphin-striker is stepped 
in them: in this, there are two sheave-holes for the martingale stays. The outer MARTINGALE STAY 
(n) is clinched round the boom end, or goes over it with an eye, reeved through the lower sheave-hole 
in the dolphin-striker, through a block (m) strapped in a span on the bowsprit, just within the fore-stay 
collar on the larboard side, leading in on the fore-castle, and sometimes having a block turned in thrend, 
setting up either with a gun-tackle purchase, or single whip. (See page 16). The inner one (1) is clinched 
to the traveller, reeved through the upper sheave-hole in the dolphin-striker, through the block in the span 
on the opposite side, and is set up as before. In some ships there are two dolphin-strikers (having a 
sheave in each), which project rather outwards on each side. Many vessels have only the outer mar¬ 
tingale-stay; but the inner one is very serviceable when the jib is a third, or half in, as it acts immedi¬ 
ately under the stay. 



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61 


Main—Main Top-mast, and Middle Stay-sails—Jack-stay, &c. 

—Q!©©— 

The MAIN STAY-SAIL is seldom used, unless for laying to under, except by brigs and ships which 
carry fore and aft main-sails, in which fashion many are now rigged. It is triangular, and traverses by 
its hanks on the main stay (a), Fig. 33S. The tack is made fast to the stay. The halliards are double: 
they are reeved through a block (b) lashed round the main-mast head, or hanging at the fore part of the 
main tressle-tree, through a block or thimble seized to the stay (c), then through a block (d) at the peak, 
and the end is clinched round the mast-head above the rigging. 

The SHEETS have pendents (e) which are bent to the clew as before: one end of the sheet (f) is 
clinched to an eye-bolt or timber-head near the gangway, the other is reeved through the block in the 
pendent (e), and through another at the gangway. The DOWN-HAULER (g) is reeved through a 
block on the stay collar, and either through a few hanks near the tack and peak, or through a thimble 
strapped to the head of the sail, as before. 

The MAIN TOP-MAST STAY-SAIL, Fig. 339, and all the stay-sails abaft the fore-mast (except 
the main stay-sail), have a fore leech, which is called the bunt , lined with an additional cloth; but in the 
Merchant Service, a cloth of stronger canvas is put in at the bunt, which answers the same purpose. 
This sail traverses by its hanks on the main top-mast spring stay (h). The HALLIARDS in men-of- 
war are reeved through the cheek-blocks on the starboard side of the main top-mast head; but in mer¬ 
chant-men through a block, which goes with a span round the main top-mast head, before the rigging is 
put over, then through the block (i) seized to the peak, and the end is clinched (see page 57) round the 
main top-mast head. The fall is reeved through a leading block, strapped to an eye-bolt in the side. 

The BRAILS (m) are reeved through the sheave-holes of a double block (n), seized to the collar on 
the fore-mast, and bent to the cringle (o) on each side. 

The DOWN-HAULER leads up through a block (p) seized to the upper tack of the sail, through 
the thimble strapped to the head rope (or through a few hanks at the tack and peak), through a small 
block (s) at the peak, and through the thimble (t) in the middle of the after leech, the end being bent to 
the clew (u). This method answers very well for the down-hauler. These sails are now cut so deep, 
that it is sometimes difficult, in working, to get the sheets (q) over the main-stay (r); but by hauling on 
this down-hauler, it trices the clew up, so that they are easily shifted; and by this, and the brails, (m), 
when the sail is taken in, it is gathered well for the men in the catharpins to stow it away. The upper 
tack is made fast to the thimble in the strap round the fore-mast. The lower tack being middled, is 
reeved on each side through a block (v) seized to one of the fore shrouds. 

The SHEETS (w) have pendents as before, one end being made fast to a timber-head abaft the 
gangway, the other reeved through the block in the pendent (q), and through a leading block at the 
gangway. The pendents are led clear over the main-stay (r). 

The MIDDLE STAY-SAIL STAY, Fig. 340, is reeved through the upper sheave of the cheek block 
on the larboard side of the main top-mast head; and a gromet (s), with an eye and thimble in it, being 
worked round the fore top-mast, it is led through the hanks, and clinched to the thimble. A block (t) is 
seized to the fore top-mast cross-trees, and a rope called a Tricing-line (u) is reeved through and bent 
to the gromet (s). Instead of this tricing-line (u), the stay is frequently put with an eye over the main 
top-mast head, reeved through the thimble in the gromet (s), through the block at the cross-trees (t), and 
led down through lubber’s hole, tricing itself up. The gromet round the fore top-mast is now seldom 
used, but a JACK-STAY (a), Fig. H, having a thimble (b) spliced or turned into its lower end, is reeved 
through a thimble (c) in an eye-bolt at the aft side of the fore cap, through another (d), and is either 
clinched round the mast-head, or one of the tressle-trees. It is set up by a laniard to a thimble, at the 
lower tressle-tree. The middle stay-sail stay is reeved as before, and clinched round the thimble (d): 
a block (g) is seized to the fore top-mast cross-trees, and a tricing-line reeved through it, being hitched 
to the stay, just above the thimble (d): this trices the slay up to its proper height. The DOWN- 
HAULER is reeved as before. The upper tack (v), Fig. 340, is made fast to the jack-stay or gromet; 
and the lower tack being middled and bent, one end is reeved through a thimble strapped to a top-mast 
shroud on the larboard, and the other on the starboard side. The SHEETS (w) go singly, leading clear 
over the main top-mast stay (z): they are reeved on each side through blocks lashed at the gangway for that 
purpose. This sail is lined, or has a piece of canvas in lieu of it, at the bunt. 

Sometimes there is no tricing-line to the stay, but a block or thimble (h), Fig. K, is strapped to the 
thimble on the jack-stay, the stay (i) is reeved through this, and clinched round the fore top-mast head, 
or to the tressle-tree (k), the lower tack (m) being taken to the top-mast shrouds to windward, the stay 
is hoisted on, which thus trices itself up, and is checked when at its proper height by the tack. 




62 


Main Top-gallant, Mizen, and Mizen Top-mast STAY-SAILS. 

—o©©— 

The MAIN TOP-GALLANT STAY-SAIL STAY, Fig. 341, 

Is generally spliced into the main top-gallant stay, a little below the collar; but sometimes it is put over 
the mast-head, like the other spring stays. The stay leading through the hanks, is reeved through a 
block or thimble (a), seized or strapped to the fore top-mast cross-trees, and led down upon deck, being 
sufficiently long for the bight to overhaul into the top. 

The halliards (b) are reeved through the sheave-hole in the pole of the main top-gallant mast, above 
the rigging, and bent to the peak clew (h) with a sheet-bend. (See page 8). 

The LOWER TACK (e) is middled, and bent to the tack, as mentioned for the sheet pendents of 
the fore stay-sail, having a throat-seizing clapped on both parts, and is made fast to a fore top-mast shroud 
on each side. The upper tack, when the sail is triced up, is seized to the strap of the thimble or block 
(a), through which the stay is reeved. 

The DOWN-HAULER (g) is reeved up through a thimble, or a small block, stepped to the upper 
tack of the sail, through a few hanks, or a thimble seized to the head-rope, and bent to the peak (h). 

The SHEETS (d) are middled, bent to the clew as before, and led clear over the middle stay-sail 
stay (k), belaying to a pin in the fife rail. 

When this sail is hauled down, Fig. 342, the halliards are let go, the sheet eased off, and the down- 
hauler is hauled upon, till the peak comes to the thimble or block (e), through which the stay is reeved: 
the upper tack is then cast off, the stay (f) eased away, and the down-hauler being again hauled upon, 
brings the sail and the bight of the stay (f) into the top, where it is stowed away. 

Some ships carry no middle stay-sail, but have this sail considerably larger, coming low down the 
fore top-mast rigging: and the main top-gallant mast is made stouter than is commonly the case. 

The MIZEN STAY-SAIL, Fig. 343, (if there be no spring-stay) is seized to the hanks on the mizen- 
stay. 

A strong cloth, or an additional one for a lining, is sewn to the bunt or fore leech. Sometimes a 
patch (h) is stuck on the middle of the sail, having an eyelet-hole worked in it: through this a short span 
is reeved, a thimble being spliced in each end; but it is now seldom used. A cringle (i) is worked in 
the after leech. 

The HALLIARDS are reeved through a block lashed round the mizen-mast head, or to the mizen 
tressle-trees, through the block (k) at the peak, and the end is clinched (see page 57, Fig. N) round the 
head of the mizen-mast. The upper tack is lashed to the collar which goes round the main-mast, and 
the lower one to an eye-bolt (1) in the deck, abaft the mast. 

The DOWN-HAULER is reeved through a block (f) strapped to the mizen-stay collar, or to the 
upper tack of the sail, and sometimes through a sheave-hole in the heart (see page 31, Fig. 212), then 
through a few hanks at the tack and peak, or through a thimble at the head of the sail, and bent to the 
peak clew (k). 

The BRAILS (u) are reeved up through the sheave of a double block, strapped to the collar on the 
main-mast, (or a single one on each side) through the thimble in the patch (h), (when used) and bent to 
the cringle (i). 

The SHEETS go with a long and short leg, which are bent to the clew as before: the short leg (m) 
has a block or thimble spliced in its end: the long one is reeved through a block (p), strapped to an 
eye-bolt in the side, through the block (m), and is belayed to a cleat bolted to the side. 

The MIZEN TOP-MAST STAY-SAIL, Fig. 344, 

Is bent to hanks on the mizen top-mast stay, and has a lining, or a strong cloth, on the mast leech. The 
halliards , which go single, are reeved through a block at the mizen top-mast tressle-trees, and bent to 
the peak (s). The down-hauler leads through a thimble or small block (t), strapped to the upper tack: 
it is reeved as before, and bent to the peak (s). 

The UPPER TACK is lashed to the collar (q) which goes round the main-mast: the lower one (u) 
is reeved through a thimble strapped to one of the main shrouds, leading down below. The sheets (v) 
are middled, bent as before, and reeved through a thimble or block, lashed to the foremost mizen shroud 
on each side, leading clear over the mizen stay. 





















































































































































































































































































































































































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63 


MIZEN TOP GALLANT STAY SAIL—FORE AND MAIN SPENCERS. 

—e©©— 

The MIZEN TOP-GALLANT STAY-SAIL, Fig. 345, 

Is bent to the hanks on the mizen top-gallant stay-sail stay, which leads, like the main one, through a block 
or thimble strapped to the main top-mast head, and is hauled down into the main-top like the main top¬ 
gallant stay-sail into the fore-top: and sometimes it is triced up on a jack-stay, like the middle stay-sail. 
(See page 61). The shape of this sail depends on which of the above methods it is carried. 

The HALLIARDS (w) are reeved through the sheave-hole in the pole of the mizen top-gallant mast, 
just above the rigging, or through a block lashed there, and bent to the peak with a sheet-bend. (See page 
8;. The down-hauler is reeved as before: the sheets are middled and bent to the clew, like those of the 
mizen top-mast stay-sail, leading clear over the mizen top-mast stay, and belaying to the foremost mizen 
shroud, or to the fife-rail, on each side. 


It is in practice in the Merchant Service to seam pricJc the stay-sails (i. e. to sew them in a zig-zag 
manner) when they are made; because the strain of the sheets lies directly across the seams, from the 
clew to the tack. 


The FORE AND MAIN SPENCERS, Fig. 346. 

The sail is made with a mast leech, which is bent to a batten or a jack-stay (a) on the mast; hoops 
are put on the gaff, and the head of the sail is bent to them, and the sail is hauled out upon the gaff by 
an out-hauler (b). 


The sheet (c), which is either single or double, is hooked to an eye-bolt in the water-way. 


The sail is furled by brails (d), of which there are generally three: the head brail is bent to the head 
cringle, and led through a block at the throat of the gaff to the deck: the middle brail is bent to a cringle 
in the after leech, as far distant from the gaff as the block on the mast is distant from the throat of the 
gaff: the lower or foot brail is bent according to the same rule. 


The STUDDING-SAILS are for temporary use. These sails, like the others, derive their names 
from the masts to which they belong. Thus the lower studding-sails from the lower masts, the top¬ 
mast studding-sails from the lop-masts, and the top-gallant studding-sails from the top-gallant masts, &c. 


The LOWER STUDDING-SAILS are square at the head, foot and leech, and pieced at the eat¬ 
ings and clews. 




64 


STUDDING-SAIL BOOMS—LOWER STUDDING-SAIL. 


Previously to these sails being set, the top-mast studding-sail boom (a), Fig. 347, which rests in the 
boom iron, on the lower yard, is launched out, and the heel is secured by a lashing. At the outer end 
of the boom is strapped a block (b), which rests upon the upper side, and through it is reeved the top¬ 
mast studding-sail tack (c), one part leading aft to the gangway, and the other either before or abaft the 
boom, as occasion may require. Another block (d) is put over the boom end, or is lashed to it, hang¬ 
ing underneath, for the outer halliards of the lower studding-sail (e). In merchant ships, when this sail 
is gored, having more cloths at the foot than the head, this block has a short pendent, which is retained 
to the boom further in by a selvagee strap. Over the boom end there is a pendent (f) with a block 
spliced in for a brace (g) to reeve through, for the better security of the boom when it blows fresh. After 
this, another pendent, called a Topping-lift Pendent , is put over, having a thimble spliced in the end: the 
top-burton tackle being overhauled, the hook of its lower block (h) is put through this thimble, and 
bowsed taught. This answers the same purpose that the lifts do to the lower yards. 

The TOP-MAST STUDDING-SAIL BOOM is often got on the yard by the lower studding-sail 
halliards: and sometimes, one of the fore bunt-lines is cast off from the foot of the sail, and made fast to 
it. When the rigging above mentioned is put on, the boom, in men-of-war, is launched out by a boom- 
tackle; but in small ships, the yard sheet (i), which is reeved through a block in the inner quarter of the 
lower yard, and through another at the outer one (k), is made fast to the heel-lashing of the boom, and the 
men on deck hauling upon it, launch it out. When the boom is small, it is first launched out by hand. 

The TOP-GALLANT STUDDING-SAIL BOOM, Fig. 348, 

Rests in the iron (a) in the top-sail yard-arm, and the heel is secured to the yard with a lashing: there 
is no rigging to this boom but a thimble (b), which is strapped to the end of it, for the top-gallant stud¬ 
ding-sail tack. 

The LOWER STUDDING-SAIL BOOM, Fig. 349, 

Has a large iron hook (1), called a Goose-neck , driven into the inner end, which is hooked to an eye-bolt 
in the side, between the fore chains and the cat-head. At the outer end, a block (m) is strapped, for the 
lower studding-sail tack (n) to reeve through, one end of which is led through a block at the gangway. 
In the middle of the boom are two straps (o), with thimbles seized in them: one of these lies above, and 
the other below the boom. 

The TOPPING-LIFT (p) is reeved through a block (q), spliced in a long span, which goes round 
the lower mast-head: the end is clinched to the upper strap (o) in the middle of the boom. In order to 
keep the boom from flying up, which is often the case when a ship rolls in going large, a block (r) is 
lashed to an eye-bolt in the bends, and a rope called a Martingale (s), being reeved through it, is bent to 
the other strap (o) in the middle of the boom: it is set taught on the fore-castle, and belayed to a timber-head. 
Men-of-war have a tackle hooked to the boom, to keep it down. A block (t) is lashed on the outer quar¬ 
ter of the sprit-sail yard, and the FORE-GUY (u) is reeved through it, and clinched to the middle of the 
boom, just without the strap: the AFTER-GUY (v) is clinched close to it, and reeved through a block 
lashed round a timber-head at the gangway. To gtt this boom out and in, see pages 81 and 82. 

The LOWER STUDDING-SAIL, Fig. 350, 

Is bent to a short yard (w). The OUTER HALLIARDS (x) are reeved through a block in a span, 
which goes round the lower cap, through the block (y) at the top-mast studding-sail boom end, and are 
hitched round the yard (w) with a fisherman’s bend. (See page 8). In the Merchant Service there is 
frequently a pendent (a), having a large eye spliced in one end, and a block in the other; the eye is 
taken round the top-mast head above the rigging, and the block being put through the eye, the outer 
halliards are reeved through it, as before. When the lower studding-sail is taken in, and the halliards 
are unreeved, this block is stopped to the top-mast shrouds. In small ships, where no topping-lift is 
used to the top-mast studding-sail boom, a single block is hooked to the top-burton pendent, and the 
halliards are reeved through it. 

The INNER HALLIARDS are reeved through a block (z) at the inner quarter of the lower yard, 
through another at the outer quarter, and bent to the inner head cringle. The tack is reeved through the 
block (c) and bent to the outer clew. The sheet (d) is middled, and the bight bent to the inner clew. 




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66 


MIZEN, OR SPANKER. 

—Q©©— 

The fore and aft sail, Fig. 355, is called by either of those names, excepting when a square sail is 
bent to the cross-jack yard, which is the case in some of our modern packet ships, such as the Liv¬ 
erpool and Victoria. 

The mizen in such ships is bent like the fore-sail, page 52, and the other sail is called the spanker. 


Around the mizen-mast at (d), there is an iron strap with an arm, on which the try-sail mast, (if there 
one), rests, and in which there is an eye-bolt, through which the goose-neck of the spanker boom plays. 


The boom is fitted with a block at (f) for a sheet, which is connected by a fall with another at the 
taffrail amidships. Guys (h) are hooked to the outer end of the boom : on the inner end of the guys, 
blocks are spliced and connected with other blocks by falls, which are hooked into the boomkins, or on 
the quarter. When going free the lee guy is hooked forward to steady the boom. 


There are three different modes of bending and using a spanker. The first mode, Fig. 35^, is that 
the head is bent to a jack-stay on the gaff; the luff is bent to hoops on the try-sail mast; the tack (m) 
is lashed to the heel of the mast, and the clew (n) lashed to the boom; the gaff is hoisted by peak and 
throat halliards: down-haulers are fixed to the throat and peak of the gaff. 


The second is by a gaff slung, Fig. 355. The head of the sail is bent to the gaff on a jack-stay; 
the luff is bent to a jack-stay on the mast; the clew is hauled out by an out-hauler (g) to the end of the 
boom. 


Brails (d) are lashed to cringles on the after leech and foot, to furl the sail. 


The third is also a slung gaff. The luff is bent as Fig. 355, but the head and foot are both hauled out 
by out-haulers. (See Fore and Main Spencers, FigC 346). 





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67 


ANCHORS, &c. 

—Q©©— 

Vessels called Barques, Fig. 357, rigged in this manner, can sail with a hand or two less, and an¬ 
swer very well for working through narrows, there being no square-sail on the mizen-mast to brace 
round. 

In some few vessels, the main brace, Fig. 357, leads through a block at the aftermost fore shrbud, 
and the main top-sail brace, through a block strapped to an eye-bolt in the after part of the fore-cap, the 
standing part being hitched round the fore-mast head; the top-gallant brace leads to the after part of the 
fore top-mast cross-tree. 

The aftermost shroud of any mast rigged with a boom, and gaff which traverses, the sail having reefs 
in, should be served the whole length: and the aftermost top-mast back-stay should go with a block and 
runner, as mentioned for the breast back-stay: the former, that it may not be chafed when going large, 
and the latter, to make room for the boom to be guyed forwards. 

AN ANCHOR is a large instrument of iron, shaped like Figures 358 and 359: (a), the flukes or 
palms; (b), the bills; (c), the shanks; (d), the arms; (e), the slock, made of oak, bolted together, hooped, 
and furled, secured by the nut (g); (f), the iron hoops; (h), the eye for the ring; (k), the ring, and (m) 
the crown of the anchor. In the Navy, the bower and sheet anchors are of the same size, as are their 
cables. 

There are many kinds of anchors; that of Porter’s seems to be of the most approved of the modern 
kind, Fig. 364, (a). 

The advantages of a Porter’s anchor are, 

1. It is impossible to foul it, as when the lower fluke has taken hold, the upper lays flat upon the 
shank. 

2. It cants and bites much quicker than any other anchor. 

3. It is more convenient for stowage, as it can be taken to pieces. 

[Fig. 364 (a), represents one of Porter’s anchors in the ground: the flukes, it will be seen, play upon 
an axis in the crown; the ring is- different from the old kind, in being of the horse-shoe form, which is the 
case with most anchors to which chains are to be bent.— Am. Ed .} 

English rnen-of-war carry six anchors, viz.: two bowers, one sheet, one spare, one stream, one kedge. 
In a first rate, the weight would be about twenty-one tons; in a frigate, twelve and a half tons; and in a 
corvette, about nine tons. Merchant ships, four anchors, viz.: two bowers, one stream, and one kedge. 

A first rate has ten cables, viz.: five bowers and one stream, (hemp); three bowers and one stream, 
(iron). A frigate, nine cables, viz-: four bowers and one stream, (hemp); three bowers and one stream, 
(iron). A corvette, eight cables, three bowers and one stream, (hemp); three bowers and one stream, 
(iron). Merchant ships have three chains, viz.: two bowers and one stream. (For Anchors, Chain 
Cables, and comparison of strength, see page 112). 

There is an advantage in having an extra bower or sheet anchor, as no ship can stand A 1 at Lloyd’s 
with less than three bower anchors. 






68 


PUDDENING THE RINGS—BUOY, &c. 

— 

Where hemp cables are used, the rings of the anchors are well parcelled with tarred canvas, and 
then wrapped round with twice-laid stuff, which is called Puddening the Anchors . It is done thus: 

A number of lengths are cut, each three times the diameter of the ring. These are laid on the ring, 
and stopped by a temporary seizing in the middle (a), Fig. 360. They are laid by hand as far as (b): 
when a turn or two of rat-line stuff is taken round, and a heaver (b) being put through it, it is hove well 
round, which stretches all the turns of the pudding or wreath, making them lie taught and even. A seiz¬ 
ing is clapped on within the heaver, and snaked (see page 10): the heaver is then taken off. 

The parts are then laid and hove in the same manner to (c), Fig. 361, where another seizing is 
clapped on. The same operation is performed on the other side to d and e, when it will appear like 
the Figure, the temporary seizing being taken off. The ends of the pudding are then opened out (f) and 
well tarred. 

The BUOY is a kind of cask, made in the form of Figure 362. It is slung, for the purpose of bend¬ 
ing one end of the buoy rope to, the other end being fixed to the crown of the anchor. Nine times the 
length of the buoy will make the slings and hoops. 

These are hove out, parcelled and served. The slings have an eye spliced in each end. The lower 
hoop (g) is reeved through the eyes of the upper slings (h), which are taken under the upper hoop (i): 
this is reeved through the eyes of the lower slings (k), which are taken under the lower hoop (g). The 
hoops are spliced together. A tackle is hooked to the bights of one pair of slings: the bights of the other 
being put over a timber-head, they are bowsed well out, and the hoops beat down: the bights at each 
end are then seized with a round seizing (see page 9), and double crossed. There is often a thimble (m) 
seized in the bights, round which is another thimble, and to it the buoy rope is bent. A laniard (1) is 
spliced to the upper eye of the slings. 

The buoy rope is unstranded for two or three feet, and a buoy rope knot (see page 7) is cast on the 
end, which is bent to the crown of the anchor, Fig. 363. It is made fast with a clove hitch round the 
arms, close to the crown (1), and the end part stopped to the shanks with seizings, one just within the 
throat (m), and the other close to the knot (n). The other end is spliced to the thimble in the bight of 
the buoy slings. The buoy rope is seventeen or eighteen fathoms in length, and sometimes longer, 
where the anchorage is deep. 

In the Merchant Service they have often a chain, Fig. 364, seven or eight feel long, which is bent to 
the anchor, and the end seized to the shank, the link in the upper end having a thimble in it, for the 
buoy rope to be spliced round. This will be very little additional expense, and prevent the bad conse¬ 
quences likely to result from the want of a chain; for the buoy rope is apt to be chafed where it is bent: 
if it be much injured (should the cable part), the anchor cannot be well weighed: and should it break, 
there is no chance of recovering the anchor, but by sweeping for it with boats and a hawser, which is 
very precarious. 



























































































































69 


CATTING AND FISHING THE ANCHORS. 

—— 

When the anchors are brought along side, the two bowers are catted and Jislied; and the stoppers and 
shank painters are passed. The other anchors are got on board by the runners and tackles, yard and 
stay tackles. 

The hook of the cat-block (a), Fig. 365, is put through the ring of the anchor: the cat-fall (b), which 
is reeved alternately through the sheave-holes in the cat-head (c), and those in the cat-block (a) being 
swayed upon, the anchor is thus brought up to the cat-head. This is called catting the anchor. A stop¬ 
per, one end of which is hitched and seized round the cat-head, (or reeved through a hole in it), having 
a double walled knot, double crowned (see page 5), (cast on one end), is taken through the ring of the 
anchor, over a cleat (d), Fig. 366, bolted on the cat-head for that purpose, hauled taught, belayed to tim¬ 
ber-heads and stopped: the cat fall is eased off, and the block unhooked. [There is a better kind of ring 
stopper in use on board of merchant ships, (see plate 112, Fig 15): it is of chain.— Am Ed.] 

In men-of-war, there is a davit (g). This is placed in the fore part of the fore chains, and is rigged 
with three guys. The fore guy (e) is taken round the cat-head, the after guy (f) to the after part of the 
fore channel; the guy (h) is hitched round the fore-mast head. 

The FISH PENDENT (i) is reeved through a large single block (k), (having a large hook and thim¬ 
ble turned in the lower end), and this is placed with its strap over the davit end. In the other end an 
eye is spliced, and the strap of a double block (t) being put through it, a toggle is thrust in it. The dou¬ 
ble block (t) is connected to a single one (by its fall), which is hooked to an eye-bolt aft.—Sometimes a 
thimble is spliced in the inner end of the pendent (i), and the double block of a luff-tackle is hooked to it: 
and frequently the pendent has no tackle attached to it; but it is made longer, and the end taken to the 
capstern. The fish hook is taken to the inner arm of the anchor (m), and the tackle fall being stretched 
along, the men sway it up. When high enough (supposing the cable to be bent, for which see page 94), 
a wooden fender, called a Shoe (n), having a laniard to it, is placed over the side, for the inner bill of the 
anchor to rest against: and the shank painter, which is a stopper, with an iron chain, is passed under 
the inner arm and shank (as represented by the dotted line), belayed to timber-heads, hitched and stopped. 
The anchor stock is bowsed to with a tackle, to make the arms lie square. The fish tackle is then eased 
off, and the fish unhooked. When the anchors are stowed, the inner arms rest on the gunnel. 

Smaller ships, which carry davits, have them run out over the gunnel athwart-ships, the inner end 
resting on the fore-castle, Fig. 367. In the outer end (y) is a snatch-sheave, in which the bight of a short 
pendent (r) is placed, having the fish hook (s) spliced in one end, and a thimble in the other, to which is 
hooked the lower block of the runner tackle (o): on the inner end there is a sheave placed at right angles 
with the outer end : in this the bight of a rope is placed to serve as a guy. 

Some ships have no davits. The anchors are then fished by the runner and tackles. 

The runner (t), Fig. 368, is bent to the fish hook, and a piece of short rope, called a Lizard (u), being 
spliced into the runner a little above the hook, the lower block of the runner tackle is hooked to it, and 
thus the power of the runner and tackle is applied. 


18 




70 


BENTICK SHROUDS—Getting in the BOWSPRIT by the Fore Yard. 


BENTICK SHROUDS are generally set up at sea; but as some ships have them constantly rigged, 
particularly when they lead like Fig. 371, it will be proper to describe them in this page. [Bentick 
shrouds are very rare at present and very useless.— Am. Ed.~\ 

The bentick shrouds do not lead down on the side they are meant to act upon; but they are taken 
across, the upper end being on the starboard, and the lower end on the larboard side, and vice versa. 

In the upper end of the bentick shroud, Fig. 370, a large thimble (p) is spliced: through this a span 
(q) is reeved, which has also thimble spliced in each end (r): and through each of these thimbles 
another span (s) is reeved, having a thimble in each leg. These legs are seized to the futtock stave and 
lower shroud, each one opposite to a futtock shroud (t). 

In the other end of the BENTICK shroud a dead-eye (o) is turned, which is set up by a laniard to 
another dead-eye in the channel. Another is led across in the same manner, on the opposite side. 

An UPRIGHT BENTICK, Fig. 371, has only one shroud or pendent, and acts by its legs on each 
side, as before. The shroud (a) has a large thimble (b) spliced in as before, with two spans (c) and thim¬ 
bles, leading on each side. Two other spans (d) with their thimbles are reeved through these, and 
seized to the shrouds and futtock staves, as in the former Figure. The dead-eye (e), in the lower end 
of the shroud, is set up with a laniard to another (f), which is strapped in an iron bolt in the deck, abaft 
the lower mast. 

These shrouds ease the futtock staves and lower rigging, the strain of the top-mast shrouds laying a 
good deal on them; so that when the ship rolls to leeward, the rigging is kept taught, and when she rolls 
again to windward, does not come to with that sudden jerk which it is liable to without their aid. 

^ When a new bowsprit is to be stepped, it is sometimes got in without sheers, by the fore yard, Fig. 
373, the slings being cast off. 

The fore yard is lowered down one-third, or any other distance, according to its squareness, by the 
jears, if they be carried, or otherwise by tackles from the lower cap. The single block of the starboard 
yard tackle is brought to the cat-head (g), hooked to a pair of slings, and the fall taken through a leading- 
block (h). By bowsing on that tackle, and gathering in the larboard lift (i), the yard is got fore and aft 
within the rigging: and if the bowsprit be stepped between decks it will require to be carried very for¬ 
ward, and the yard-arm may be lowered or topped by the lift as occasion requires. A strong lashing 
is passed round the mast at (k), and a large single block at (1). A hawser (m) is reeved through the top- 
block (n), (or through a block lashed to the fore-mast head above the rigging) through the block (1), and 
the end is hitched round the fore-mast. The other end of the hawser is hove taught and belayed, which 
secures the yard against the strain of the purchase. The purchase block (o) is lashed round the yard, 
and the lower block (p) is toggled to a stout selvagee on the bowsprit, like that mentioned for the lower 
masts. A back rope or guy (q) is reeved through a block lashed round the fore cap, and hitched round 
the bowsprit end, which guys it in the direction required, whether it be more horizontal or perpen¬ 
dicular. 




/^s/ye Jo 












































































71 


ELEMENTS OF PRACTICAL SEAMANSHIP. 


The Rudder of a ship (a), Fig. 373, is a machine attached to the stern-post, for the purpose of gov¬ 
erning her movements. It is turned by a lever of wood or iron, called a Tiller (b), which is also de¬ 
nominated the Helm, so as to expose either side occasionally to the shock of the water: and it is imma¬ 
terial whether the rudder be acted upon by the water or the water by the rudder, the effect being the 
same. This tiller in large ships is moved by a wheel, attached to it by the tiller rope—[or by other me¬ 
chanical contrivance, which we may hereafter describe.— Am. Ed .] 

Let Fig. 374 represent the surface of a vessel, and (a) the rudder and the tiller, in the direction of 
her keel. If she be pushed forward through the water she will go in the course of the dotted line 
towards (f), without any resistance or hinderance from the rudder; which proves that it can have no 
effect on the ship in that position, the helm (b) being a-midships, and the nearer it is kept to that posi¬ 
tion the more rapid will be the progress of the vessel through the water. 

If the ship, Fig. 375, be pushed forward in the direction of the keel, and the rudder (a) be put over 
from its original position towards (c), then will her way be in some degree checked, and the larboard or 
left side of the rudder being forced against the water, will drive her stern towards (d), and her head 
towards (e), the ship turning on her centre of gravity (h). The tiller or helm (b), which puts the rudder 
over to port or to the left, goes itself over to starboard, or to the right; therefore, in this position the 
helm is said to be a-starboard. If the same vessel were pushed stern foremost towards (g), with the 
helm (b) in the same position ( a-starboard ), then the after or starboard side of the rudder being forced 
against the water would turn her stern towards (c), consequently her head towards (i): and whether the 
rudder be forced against the water, or the water against the rudder, the effect will be the same. 

If the rudder could be so far put over as to lie athwart, or be perpendicular to the keel, like Fig. 376, 
then the water acting in a direct line against its surface, would only tend to check the ship’s way, and 
afterwards force her astern in the direction of her keel towards (g), without affecting her turning motion. 
From this it is evident that the less the rudder is put over the better; for as the smallest deviation from 
its first position, Fig. 374, will act in some degree as a check to the ship’s way, the more it is kept in 
that direction, the more rapid will be her velocity through the water. 

The following rule being retained in the memory, will render the description of the vessel’s evolutions 
easy and familiar: 

In going a-head, if the helm be put a-starboard, it will turn the ship's head ) tQ ( port, or to the left , 

and her stem _ _ ) \ starboard. 

But in going a-stern, if the helm be put a-starboard , it will turn the ship's head > tQ C starboard, 

and her stern .... ) i port. 

In going a-head, if the helm be put a-port, it will turn the ship's head > tQ C starboard, 

and her stem _ ) \ port. 

But in going a-stern, if the helm be put a-port, it will turn the ship's head ) ( port, 

and her stem .... ) ( starboard. 

From the foregoing rule it appears, that in going a-head, the helm must be put the contrary way to that 
which the bow is to approach: and that in going a-stern, it must be put the same way that her head is 
intended to be turned. 

The current or tide running a-stern will have the same effect on the rudder as if the vessel were going 
a-head: and when it runs forward or a-head, it will be the same as though the ship were going a-stern. 

If the rudder, when hard over, make an angle of between thirty-three and thirty-five degrees, it is 
found by experience to be sufficient. 




72 


ELEMENTS OF PRACTICAL SEAMANSHIP. 


It will now be expedient to show how the sails act upon the ship with respect to her centre of gravity 
or rotation. 

Let Fig. 377 represent a vane on a spindle, or centre, in a perfect calm. If a light breeze springs 
up, and blows from (1), the broad part (n) will be moved from its station to (m), and the point conse¬ 
quently come to (1). But if there be a flat surface of equal dimensions, instead of the point on the oppo¬ 
site side, then it will remain stationary ; because both blades being acted upon, the one will counterpoise 
the other. Upon this principle may be deduced the effects of all the sails before and abaft the centre of 
gravity or rotation, like the effect of the blades on one or both sides of the spindle or axis. 

For if a model of a vessel, Fig. 378, having three masts, with three square sails to hoist on them, be 
placed in the water, and an imaginary axis described by the dotted line (m), pass vertically through the 
centre of gravity or rotation, (which is here supposed to be in the centre of the model), it will appear by 
the annexed figures that the effect will be similar. 

As the larboard or left side of the vessel is presented, suppose the wind blows right on her side, then 
it will be what seamen term on the beam; therefore, the larboard, or left, will be the windivard or weather 
side; and the starboard, or right, the lee one. So any thing on this side is called being to windward , and 
on the other to leeward . 

Let the fore-sail (a) be hoisted up by the halliards (b), the clew to windward (d) fastened down by 
its tack, the lee clew (e) hauled aft by its sheet, and the yard braced up by the starboard or lee brace 
(f); the sail will then stand fair. The tacks always keeping down the clews to windward is the reason 
that when the wind is on the starboard or larboard side the ship is said to be on the starboard or lar¬ 
board tack. 

The effect of the sail (a) will be, as it lies before the imaginary spindle or centre of gravity (m), to 
turn the ship’s head to starboard, and at the same time to drive her a-head in the direction of her keel. 

• 

If there be added to this vessel a boom, Fig. 379, with a jib (c) set upon it, having its tack made fast 
to the boom end, and its sheet (d) hauled aft, as before; then great power will be given to turn the ship’s 
head to starboard or leeward; because this boom extending out so far from the centre of gravity (m), its 
power is increased in proportion to its distance from that centre. 

Now if the centre of gravity (m) be in the middle of the ship, or where the main-mast stands, (which 
we will suppose in this case) then it will appear by Fig. 380, that the jib (c), fore top-mast stay-sail (b), 
sprit-sail (a), sprit-sail top-sail (d), fore-sail (e), fore top-sail (f), fore top-gallant sail (g), fore top-gallant 
royal (h), main stay-sail (i), main top-mast stay-sail (k), middle stay-sail (1), and main top-gallant stay¬ 
sail (n), act before the centre of gravity (m), and that their endeavor is to pay the ship’s head off to lee¬ 
ward, or make her wear, at the same time they drive her a-head in the direction of her keel, like the 
single sail, Fig. 378. 













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73 


ELEMENTS OF PRACTICAL SEAMANSHIP. 

If the sail (c), Fig. 381, which we will call the mizen, be set as before, with the larboard tack down 
to windward, and the starboard sheet aft, it will force her stern to leeward or starboard, consequently 
bring her head up to the wind, and drive her forward in the direction of her keel; because it is set abaft 
the imaginary axis or centre of gravity: by which it is evident that any sail set abaft this centre, tends 
to make a ship stay, or come to the wind, and all before it, to make her fly off from the wind, and ware, 
or veer. 


If both the sails (a and c), Fig. 382, be set at the same time, and be of equal dimensions, then their 
united power will force the vessel with greater velocity through the water, and at the same time keep 
her in her original position; because the one acting before, and the other abaft the centre of gravity, or 
imaginary axis (m), they counterbalance each other, like the two blades of the vane before-mentioned. 


If the sail (b), Fig. 383, (the main-sail) be set, the tack acting before, and the sheet abaft the imagi¬ 
nary axis or centre of gravity (m), will also retain her in her original position, and impel her a-head in 
the direction of her keel. 


From the effect of these sails, it appears (allowing the centre of rotation to be a-midships), that the 
lee sides of the main-sail (o), Fig. 384, main top-sail (p), main top-gallant sail (q), the whole of the mizen 
stay-sail (s), mizen top-mast stay-sail (t), mizen top-sail (v), mizen top-gallant sail (u), and mizen (x), 
act abaft the centre of gravity, consequently force her stern to leeward or starboard, and at the same time 
send her a-head in the direction of her keel. 


If the sail (a), Fig. 385, be braced a-back with the larboard or weather brace (d), the lee tack (e) 
being hauled forward, and the weather sheet aft, its effect will then be to pay her head off rapidly to 
leeward or to starboard, and at the same time to force her a-stern in the direction of her keel. For the 
sail laying flat against the mast, having its forward surface exposed to the wind, must have a contrary 
effect to what it has when full, and its power when braced a-back (the wind being forward), is much 
greater to pay her head off to leeward, as it acts directly against its surface. 


If the sail (c), Fig. 386, be braced aback, having its forward surface exposed to the wind, its action 
will be to force her a-stern in the direction of her keel, and also to drive her stern to leeward or starboard. 


If this vessel, having these three square sails and a jib, be to ware, or recede from the wind, it 
appears that the power of the sails abaft the centre of gravity, or imaginary axis (m), must be conside¬ 
rably diminished, or taken away, because their tendency is to bring her head towards the wind, by im¬ 
pelling her stern to leeward. Therefore if the sheet of the sail (c), Fig. 387, be let go, it will shake, and 
lose its power abaft the centre (m), and consequently give more effort to the sails (a d), and the wind¬ 
ward part of (b), to turn her head from the wind. If the sheet of the sail (b) were also let go, and the 
yards of the sails (b and c), Fig. 388, pointed to the wind, by letting go the lee braces, and hauling in 
the larboard or weather ones (g), their effort abaft the centre (m) would be entirely destroyed, the wind not 
actino- on their surfaces, but only on their extremities or leeches: the greatest impulse will then be given 
to the fore-sail (a) and jib (d), that they can possibly receive, without the after yards being lowered 
down. On the contrary, if the vessel be to approach the wind or stay, the sheets of the sails (a and b), 
Fio - . 3S9, must be let go, and the power being thus given to the sails, (b and c) abaft the centre (m), 
the stern will recede from, consequently her head approach to the wind. 


19 




74 


ELEMENTS OF PRACTICAL SEA3IANSHIP. 


If the power of the sails (b and c), Fig. 390, be continued to bring the vessel’s head to the wind, till 
the sail (a) be a-back, that sail will then have its effort more powerful to bring her head to: and if she 
persevere in her head-way until her bow pass the direction of the wind, she will then come round and 
recede from the wind again to port or to the left. 

Suppose the ship retain her velocity through the water, and by the action of the sails (b and c) in the 
first instance, and the sail (a), when a-back in the second, bring the wind right a-head like Fig. 391: 
the sails (b and c) are becalmed by the sail (a), which receives all the force on its forward surface. 
These sails (b and c) being changed by bracing them about like the Figure, are prepared when she has 
past the line of the wind about four points by the falling off, to again receive it, and renew her head-way, 
which will be nearly exhausted, by the great power of the sail (a) being kept so long a-back, the ship 
keeping her rotary motion to port or to the left: which aid will be then no longer necessary, as she will 
have brought the wind on the starboard side: therefore the sail (a), Fig. 392, must be also changed, by 
bracing it about with the larboard brace, getting the starboard tack aboard, and hauling aft the larboard 
sheet. She will then be on the starboard tack, that is, she will have the wind on the starboard side, 
with the starboard clews or lower corners of the sail hauled forwards by their tacks. 

This method of bringing the ship round against the wind is termed TACKING,* and has great ad¬ 
vantage, as will be shown when speaking of WARING, or making a rotation from the wind. 

The effect of the sails both before and abaft the centre of gravity, may be greatly assisted by the 
rudder; but when the vessel is to go in a direct course a-head, the more the sails can be set to counter¬ 
act each other, and keep the ship in equilibrio, the better, that there may be as little occasion as possible 
for the rudder to be put over from its fore and aft position: every inclination from that direction check¬ 
ing the ship in her way through the water. 

The effect of the sails has been given as if the centre of gravity were in the centre of the ship: but 
the centre of rotation in many ships, as they are now built, may not be much abaft the chess-tree, to 
which the main tack is hauled; for the main breadth or dead flat being there, the greatest cavity will be 
there also, and of course the principal weight of the cargo or materials in the hold should centre near 
that part, being the strongest. Therefore the centre of rotation will greatly depend on proper stowage. 
If the ship be much by the head or stern, the centre will be carried more forwards, or aft, as may be 
seen by a ship’s taking the ground. If the vessel, Fig. 393, take the ground aft, with the sails (a, b, c 
and d) set as before, her after part or heel being fixed, and her fore part having no lateral resistance but 
the water, her head will fly round off to leeward, the after sails having lost their power: and if she takes 
the ground forward, like Fig. 394, her stern will fly round off, for the same reason. Thus if a ship be 
much by the stern, she cannot keep her wind well (because her head will fly off) without assistance 
from the rudder, and if she be by the head, she cannot easily ware, on account of the great resistance 
under her bows to leeward. So a difference in the situation of the centre of gravity, may cause a dif¬ 
ference in the effect of the sails: and as ships vary so much in construction and trim, these must be first 
known, before the proper effect can be found. 

The ship, Fig. 395, is represented sailing on the starboard tack, the yards braced sharp up with the 
larboard braces, and the weather or starboard leeches of the square sails hauled forward by the bow-lines. 
It is soon known if the ship be kept in equilibrio by the sails before and abaft the centre of gravity; for 
if she be, the helm may be kept nearly a-midships in smooth water: but if she gripe, or carry her helm 
much to windward or starboard, it may proceed from having too much sail set abaft the centre, in which 
case, the mizen top-gallant sail, top-gallant and top-mast stay-sails may be taken in, and if not sufficient, 
the mizen also: for these sails being set, instead of increasing, check her head-way, by causing her to 
drag the flat part of the rudder after her. But her griping may possibly proceed from having too much 
head sail; for when a ship lies much over on a wind, the square sails forward have a tendency to press 
her downwards, and raise her proportionally abaft, so that she meets the same lateral resistance under 
her bows to leeward, as if she were so much by the head, which must considerably impair her head¬ 
way; for her after part flying off to leeward, the helm is obliged to be carried a-starboard, or a-weather 
in some degree, in order to keep her to. When the griping proceeds from this cause, the royal and top¬ 
gallant sail forward, may be taken in, which will probably bring her to her proper steerage again. 











































































































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75 


COMPASS, &c. 

— 

A square rigged vessel when close hauled (i. e. as close to the wind as she can possibly lie), can 
approach no nearer to it than six points; to the perfect understanding of which, the young sea officer must 
make himself thoroughly acquainted with the Mariner’s compass, which should be diligently got by rote, 
that he may refer to it in his memory on all occasions. 

The compass is described on a card like Fig. 396, divided into several points; and this card being 
fixed on a piece of steel called the Needle , which has been touched by a load-stone, acquires the property 
when resting on a pivot fixed vertically in the compas box, of pointing to the north.—The north point of 
the compass then pointing to the north, the others will of course point to their respective parts of the 
horizon. The variation of the compass is not here noticed, as it may be referred to in any book of nav¬ 
igation. 

The compass has eight points in each quarter, equal to ninety degrees, making in the whole thirty- 
two, equal to three hundred and sixty degrees of the horizon. A square rigged ship, when close-hauled 
(as before mentioned), can lie no nearer to the wind than six points: therefore if a ship be close-hauled 
on the starboard tack, and her head at north, count six points from thence to the right hand, or towards 
the east, and you will find the wind must be at E. N. E. The wind then forms an angle with the keel 
of six points, or sixty-three degrees forty-five minutes: so that if the line (a b), Fig. 397, represents the 
ship’s keel, (c) will be the yard when braced up, and (d) the direction of the wind. In practice the 
yard is braced up sharper, to make the sail stand to the most advantage. 

When the wind is at E. by N. Fig. 398, she has then one point free; because she is seven points 
from the wind. When at east, which is eight points from north, it is said to be on the beam. It then 
blows on the ends of the ship’s beams, which lie athwart her, and in lines perpendicular to the keel (a b.) 
E. by S. is one point abaft the beam, E. S. E. two points, S. E. by E. three points abaft the beam. 

When the wind is at S. E. it is termed being on the quarter, when at S. E. by S. one point on the 
quarter, S. S. E. two points, S. by E. three points on the quarter, and when at South, it is right aft, 
for the ship is then before the wind. 

When the ship is on the larboard tack with her head North, the points are counted on the opposite 
or West side; and if the ship’s head be put to any point of the compass, the distances will be the same : 
for, by looking at the compass, Fig. 396, and counting the points to the right or left hand, according as 
the ship is on the starboard or larboard tack, the young mariner may always find how the wind is with 
respect to the ship’s keel. 

The ship may now be supposed at sea, close hauled on the starboard tack, as described in the for¬ 
mer page. She is placed at sea in the first instance, because her movements there must be previously 
understood, in order to comprehend the management of her at anchor, casting for a weather tide, getting 
under way, &c., and that all may be made progressively clear to the young officer. 

As all vessels differ so materially in their working, on account of the difference in their construction 
or trim, there can be no one method recommended as certain till these be known. 




76 


SEAMANSHIP. 

—O' 1 ©©— 

TACKING BY THE METHOD FORMERLY PRACTISED. 

The system of tacking formerly practised, and which was commonly used as a general rule, will best 
define the principles, and tend to elucidate the other evolutions more clearly to the young sea officer: 
although the sudden putting down of the helm, &c., is erroneous. 


The ship, Fig. 399. is now on the starboard tack, with the wind at E. N. E., and it is found necessary 
to put about, and stand on the larboard tack. Now, with the wind at E. N. E., she will fie with her head 
north, which is six points from it: therefore when she brings the wind right a-head, she will of course fie 
E. N. E.; and when she is close hauled on the larboard tack, she will lie with her head S. E., which is 
also six points from the wind, as may be seen by the compass, Fig. 403. 


When every thing was ready, such as the weather braces stretched along, the lee tacks, weather sheets, 
and lee bow-lines hauled through the slack, it was the custom to put the helm hard over to leeward, and 
then the word was given— “the helm’s a-lee, fore sheet, fore top bow-line, jib and stay-sail 
sheets let go!” ( The helm was put a-lee, to bring the ship's head towards the wind, the fore, jib and fore 
top-mast stay-sail sheets let go, to take away the power of those sails which lie before the centre of gravity , and give 
all the effort to those which lie abaft it, arid the fore top bow-line let go, that the fore top-sail might the sooner 
catch aback; and to assist it still more, as soon as the sail began to touch, the weatherfore top-sail brace was haided 
on, and as she came to, the yard was braced up again.) 

Suppose this word to have been given, as above, in the ship, Fig. 399, which had her head north, as 
per compass, and that in consequence she was coming round gradually to the eastward, and approach¬ 
ing the wind: when she arrived at the position of the ship, Fig. 400, her head would be N. E. by N., 
(see compass) within three points of the wind, which blowing on the leeches or extremities of the after 
sails, made them shake; at this moment the word was given, “off tacks and sheets!” when the main 
tack, sheet and all the stay-sail tacks and sheets were let go, because they were of no further use in 
bringing the ship to the wind; it having no effect upon them but to make them shake. (At this time the 
tacks and sheets of the stay-sails were shifted over the stays, to be ready for the other tack; and the main clew- 
garnet hauled a little up, that the yard might come about the easier.) 


During this, she was coming rapidly to, and when in the position of the ship, Fig. 401, (being then 
head to wind, E. N. E., as per compass) the word was given, “main-sail haul!” (The main-sail, main 
top-sail, main top-gallant sail, mizen top-sail and mizen top-gallant sail, having their bow-lines and lee braces 
let go, and being quite becalmed by the head sails, were braced about, as in the Figure: the larboard main tack 
got down to the chess-tree, and the sheet gathered aft. The ship then being liable to sternway, the helm was shifted 
over to starboard (see rudder, page 71 ), that the starboard side of the rudder acting against the water might send 
her stern to port, consequently her head to starboard: the sprit-sail yard was topped the contrary way by the star¬ 
board brace, and the larboard jib guys set up.) 


She was then falling off rapidly, and when so much so that the after sails were full, the word was 
given, “let go and haul!” the fore tack and bow-line were raised, and the head yards braced about, 
the larboard fore tack got on board, and the sheet gathered aft; but the head yards were not braced 
sharp up, that she might come to. (For after hauling the head yards, her falling off would be rapid; but 
as she would soon get headway, the helm which was a-starboard assisted in bringing her to again, and it was eased 
as she approached the wind.) 


The yards were then braced sharp up, and the bow-lines hauled, when she would be in the situation 
of the ship, Fig. 402, on the larboard tack, with the wind as before, close hauled, and her head S. E., as 
per compass. The principal errors in this mode of tacking a ship are as follow: 










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77 


TACKING EXPEDITIOUSLY. 

Firstly. —By the putting of the helm suddenly over, and at the same time hard a-lee; by which, 
though the ship was brought quickly to the wind, yet having the flat part of the starboard side of the 
rudder to drag after her, the velocity was considerably diminished, and sometimes so much so as not 
to bring her past the point where she would be head to wind; in which case she was sure to miss stays 
and fall off* again. 

Secondly. —By the bracing to of the fore-topsail,* which augmented the defect in the head-way. 

Thirdly. —By not hauling the mainsail till the wind was right a-head; for the after sails being be¬ 
calmed by the head ones, and laying dead against the mast, came heavily about, and frequently so much 
so as by the ship’s falling off* to get full before the main tack could be got on board ; which, with a strong 
breeze, in ships weakly manned, could not be done without a purchase. 

Fourthly. —By the jib and fore top-mast stay-sail sheets being shifted over the stays at the same time 
with the others ; by which means they caught a-back the wrong way, and prevented the ship coming to. 

And Fifthly. —By the ground lost to leeward, owing to the falling off* before the sails could be trim¬ 
med ; all which are much against quick working. 

TACKING EXPEDITIOUSLY. 

If the ship, Fig. 405, be on the starboard tack, close hauled, her head North, of course the wind at 
E. N. E., per compass, Fig. 404, the water tolerably smooth, and it be thought necessary to put about 
and stand on the larboard tack, every thing being ready as before, the first precaution is, (as indeed it 
should be at all times when steering by the wind), to have her so suited with sail as nearly to steer her¬ 
self, with little assistance from the rudder; by which management her way will be more powerful through 
the water: she will be brought to the wind with a small helm, (the water making little resistance against 
it), and probably not have any stern-way through the whole rotation. 

Every thing being ready, the ship is luffed gradually up with as little helm as necessary from her 
known trim, and the word, “The Helm’s a-lee!” &c. is given as before, when the fore-sheet, fore 
top-mast stay-sail, and jib sheets are let go; (their power being taken away before the centre of rotation give 
effort to the mizen and other stay-sails to biing her up to the wind). When she comes round to the position 
of the ship, Fig. 406, her head being about N. E. by N., the wind will blow directly on the leeches of 
the square-sails, and the word is given, “ Off Tacks and Sheets! ” The main-taclc and sheet, and all 
the stay-sail tacks and sheets abaft the fore-mast are let go, and the latter shifted over the stays. As soon as she 
brings the wind about a point and a half on the weather bow, (her head being N. E. h E., per compass), 
like Fig. 407, the word is given, “ Main-sail Haul ! ” The ship is in the act of hauling the main-sail, and 
it appears by the figure that the after yards will nearly fly round of themselves, by the weather leeches of those sails 
catching strongly a-back when the bow-lines and lee braces are let go, and the wind having more power on the 
weather side of the sail to swing the yard round. After the main-sail is hauled she will be nearly head to wind, 
and the after sails being becalmed by the head ones, the main-tack may be got down, and the sheet aft, with ease, 
there being little more to do than to gather in the slack: the helm is righted, and afterwards used as her coming to 
or falling off requires. Having passed the direction of the wind, the jib and fore top-mast stay-sail sheets are 
shifted over the stays. The breast back-stays should also now be set up. The sprit-sail yard is topped up ivith 
the starboard brace, and the jib guys set up as before. When she brings the wind about four points before 
the larboard beam, (or sooner if her falling off* be rapid), the word is given, “Let Go and Haul!” 
The fore-tack and head bow-lines are raised, and the yards braced smartly about with the starboard braces ; but the 
weather braces are checked, that she may come to : the yards are braced sharp up, the boiv-lines hauled, the weather 
braces set taught, and the geer coiled up. She will then be in the position of the ship, Fig. 408, close-hauled 
on the larboard tack, her head S. E., as per compass. 


* In working up a river or narrow channel, the fore top-sail is commonly braced to, that the ship may not shoot too far 
a-head while in stays. 


20 






FLATTING IN—BOXING OFF, 


The ship is now on the larboard tack, with the same sail set as before, the wind at E. N. E., conse¬ 
quently her head at S. E., as per compass, Fig. 409. If the man at the helm through neglect, let the 
ship, Fig. 410, come up in the wind, (which is often the case when the weather helm is not attended to ; her 
head approaching to the eastward brings the yards in to the wind’s eye , they being , when full, not much more than 
three points from it, so that the square sails shaking forward lose their power to pay her head off to leeward again), 
the helm is put a-weather, (or to port) the mizen is hauled up, and the mizen stay-sail down, like Fig. 
411; and some hands on the fore-castle flat in the jib, and fore top-mast stay-sail sheets, by hauling the 
bights of them over to windward. This will often be effectual, for the mizen and mizen stay-sail laying 
abaft the centre of rotation, and which caused her, (particularly the former), to fly up in the wind, are 
now taken in, and the bights of the sheets forward being hauled over, give additional power to the jib 
and fore top-mast stay-sail, with the weather helm, to pay her head off again. 


The effect of flatting in may be seen by Fig. 412 ; for the bight of the sheet which the man hauls to 
him, brings the clew of the sail more towards the centre of the ship, which gives it the effect to pay her 
head off again, though not so much so (as when the sail is a-back with the sheet hauled over to wind¬ 
ward) as to considerably impede her head-way. 


If the ship be too far gone for this to recover her, and she continue coming round to the eastward, the 
fore tack, sheet, head bow-lines and lee braces are let go, and the head yards are braced rapidly about 
by the larboard braces, the larboard or weather jib and fore top-mast stay-sail sheets hauled aft, and the 
starboard or lee bow-lines forward, like Fig. 413. She will be then sure to pay off again; for the jib and 
fore top-mast stay-stail, as well as the head sails, all laying a-back, have the greatest power given them 
they can possibly receive, to act before the centre of rotation, and turn her head to leeward; at the same 
time they receive no check from the after sails, which are shivering, and are of course without effort to 
affect her. If she have stern-way, and it be thought necessary to help her with the helm, it may be put 
a-lee or a-starboard. The starboard side of the rudder being pressed against the water will force her stern to 
windward, which assists the head sails to pay her head off to starboard. If it be not thought advisable to assist 
her with the helm, it may be righted, and used as her falling off or coming to requires. (See note at 
the bottom of page 79.) 


When danger is discovered to windward it is avoided by the ship’s head receding from the wind: and 
if it be necessary to stand on the other tack, she wares or veers; but it is only on such occasions in fine 
weather that ships ever ware, the disadvantage being so great in losing ground. For by the compass, 
Fig. 414, it will be seen, that in tacking and going round to the eastward from N. to S. E. she had only 
to move twelve points from her first position, and that till she came head to wind she was gaining con¬ 
siderably to windward: and allowing the falling off before she is trimmed again to be equal to this, 
(which if she be well managed it will not be) she has then performed her evolution, and is in the same 
.situation as before, having at least lost nothing by the manoeuvre. 







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79 


VEERING or WARING—TAKEN A BACK. 

— 

In the compass, Fig. 415. which describes her waring distance, the disadvantage of this movement is 
evident: for in the mere turning motion, she must go from S. E. to North, which is twenty points, being 
eight points (or one-fourth) of the compass more than she had to go in tacking; but the principal defect 
is, that during this movement, whilst she is receding from the wind, she is forced rapidly through the 
water, and making all her way to leeward. However, in the present instance, all this is supposed to be 
necessary. 

The ship, Fig. 416, perceiving danger to windward, puts the helm to port (or a-weather), hauls up the 
mizen, down the mizen stay-sail, and shivers the mizen top-sail, (by letting go the bow-line and weather 
brace, and hauling in the lee one) and sometimes hauls up the main-sail; but if not, the main sheet is eased 
off. ( The helm being a-weather, and the power being tahen from the sails which are at the extremity of the ship, 
effort is given to the head sails, which lie before the centre of gravity, to pay her head off to leeward). The main, 
main top and main top-gallant bow-lines are let go; and when her head is south, (as per compass) the 
wind being then two points abaft the beam, like Fig. 417, the main tack is raised, and the weather braces 
are rounded in. When she has fallen off so as to bring her head W. S. W. (as per compass) she will be 
before the wind, and in the position of the ship, Fig. 418: the yards are then squared, and the starboard 
main and fore tacks got on board: (the head sails, as may be seen in the Figure, will be at this time becalmed 
by the after ones) the jib and stay-sail sheets are shifted over the stays, the sprit-sail yard topped up with 
the larboard brace, and the starboard jib guys set up. When her head is W. N. W. (as per compass), 
she will have the wind on the starboard quarter, at which time the mizen is hauled out, the mizen stay¬ 
sail hoisted, and the sheet hauled aft, like Fig. 419. (These acting abaft the centre of gravity, help to bring 

her rapidly to). When she has come round, so as bring the wind on the beam, (her head being N. N. W.) 
or before, if required, the helm is righted, to moderate her coming to; the yards are then braced sharp 
up, the sheets hauled aft, the bow-lines hauled, and the geer coiled up. She will then be on the starboard 
tack, again close hauled, her head north, and the wind at E. N. E. as before. 

Suppose the ship, Fig. 420, to be on the starboard tack, and that the wind shift suddenly a-head. 
( When she is taken with the wind a-head, the head sails lie fiat a-back, and the after ones are becalmed by them, as in 
the Figure). In this case, the main tack is raised, the main sheet, after bow-lines and lee braces let go; 
the after yards braced about like Fig. 421, the larboard main tack got on board, and the starboard sheet 
aft; the jib and stay-sail sheets shifted over the stays, (the jib and fore top-mast stay-sail sheets are not hauled 
aft, if her falling off be rapid) the sprit-sail yard topped, and the helm righted.* When she has brought 
the wind about four points before the beam, (or before, if she fall off fast) the fore tack, sheet, head bow¬ 
lines and lee braces are let go, the head yards braced about, the larboard fore tack got on board, the 
sheet aft, and all trimmed sharp when come to, as described in “lettinggo and hauling .” (See Tacking, 
page 76). She will be then on the larboard tack again. 


* It is often a custom to put the helm a-starboard in this case, if the ship have sternway, that the starboard side of the 
rudder being forced against the water, by sending her stern to port, may assist her falling off. However, the ship’s particular 
trim must be attended to in this as in all other cases.—Most ships will fall off fast enough, having sternway, and the head 
sails being a-back, with the helm a-midships; and many seamen object to the helm being put over when going a-stern, as a 
dangerous pressure against the rudder. This can only be objected to when it is blowing fresh: for in many situations, such 
as boxhauling a ship when near a lee shore, making a stern-board, &c. it is absolutely necessary to use the helm in sternway, 





80 


WIND ABAFT THE BEAM—SETTING TOP MAST STUDDING-SAILS. 

— 

Suppose the ship to be on the larboard tack close hauled, and to have had the wind at W. N. W., 
her head laying north; but that it is now come round to W. by S. (see compass, Fig. 422); it is then 
one point abaft the beam, and nine from the direction of her keel; so when she was close hauled, it was 
W. N. W., or six points from her keel; but now she has it three points free, as may be seen by the com¬ 
pass. 

When this is the case, as in Fig. 423, the sheets are eased off, the bow-lines let go, the lee braces 
eased and the weather ones hauled in a little; the fore tack eased off, the sheet hauled a little aft, and 
the weather clew got down to the cat-head by a rope called a Passaree. The trusses are set taught, and 
as it is fine weather, if it be thought necessary to make sail, hands are sent up to bend the royal hal¬ 
liards, unbecket the royals and shift their sheets over the top-gallant stays. The royals are then hoisted 
up, the sprit-sail and sprit-sail top-sail set, and the studding-sail booms run out as in the Figure. 

The top-mast and top-gallant studding-sail halliards (a and b), Fig. 424, are reeved through the span- 
blocks at the mast heads (c and d), and through the jewel-blocks at the yard-arms (e and f): the top¬ 
mast studding-sail tack (g), through the block at the boom end, and the lower studding-sail halliards (h), 
through the span-block at the lower cap, and through the block on the top-mast studding-sail boom. 
The yard sheet (1), Fig. 425, is bent to the heel lashing (m) of the boom, and the men bowsing upon it, 
launch the boom out. In large ships a tackle is used instead of the yard sheet. 

One of the Burton tackles (o), Fig. 426, is hooked to a selvagee on the top-sail yard at the second, 
quarter (p), and the double block to an eye-bolt in the top-mast cap (q): the other Burton tackle (r) is 
hooked to its own pendent by the double block, and to the topping-lift pendent on the top-mast studding- 
sail boom (s), by its single one. The former of these Burtons (o), acts as a preventer lift, and keeps the 
top-sail yard from sagging down by the weight of the top-mast studding-sail, and the latter (r) supports 
the top-mast studding-sail boom against the weight of the lower studding-sail. 

The fore top-mast studding-sail is brought on the fore-castle and bent to its yard, Fig. 427. The 
halliards (t) are made fast with a fisherman’s bend (see page 8), one-third from the inner yard-arm (s): 
the tack (u) is bent to the clew (v), and the down-hauler is reeved through the block at the clew (w), 
through the thimble in the middle of the outer leech (x), and made fast to the outer yard-arm (y). The 
sheet (z) is bent to the inner clew wdth a long and short leg, the short leg having a thimble in it. The 
sail is made up, and stopped to its yard with rope-yarns; the halliards (a), Fig. 428, are also stopped to 
the outer yard-arm. The halliards are hoisted on, and the man (b) on the fore yard, having bent the 
yard sheet (c) to the thimble in the short leg of the sheet (d), cuts the stops. The tack (m) is then hauled 
out to the boom end (n), the sail hoisted up, and the man on the yard keeps it abaft the leech of the top¬ 
sail. (A top-mast studding-sail is set abaft the top-sail when to windward, and before it when to lee¬ 
ward; because to windward the outer yard-arm must incline rather forwards, to make the sail stand 
fair; which could not be the case if the sail were set before the top-sail, for the pressure of the inner 
yard-arm would prevent it, and might injure the top-sail. When a top-mast studding-sail is set before 
the top-sail to leeward, the deck sheet is then hauled forward, and the sheet let go). 

When the sail is up, the yard sheet is hauled out. The sail when hoisted will appear like Fig. 429. 
—(e), the tack; (f), the deck sheet; (g), the yard sheet; (h), the down-hauler; (i), the halliards; (k), the 
leech of the top-sail; (1), the boom, brace and pendent. 







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81 


SETTING STUDDING-SAILS. 

—Q©*©— 

It is sometimes the practice to lead the top-mast studding-sail tacks like top-sail sheets, Fig. 430, 
through a block (i) on the lower yard, and through another further in, instead of its being taken to the 
gangway; for in going large, (these sails, particularly in vessels running down the trades, being carried 
when it blows fresh), should the wind come suddenly forward, and require the weather braces to be eased 
off’, it is not always that the tack can be eased in proportion: if it be too much so, it is difficult to haul 
out again, and if not enough, the boom is liable to be carried away by the strain; therefore in ships 
which go long voyages, where this sail is of such constant use, it is good to have a stout brace always 
reeved, and the tack to lead as before mentioned, as there will then be no risk, in bracing forward, of 
carrying away the boom. 

Before the lower studding-sail boom is rigged out, the topping-lift (n), Fig. 431, is hooked to the 
thimble in the strap on the middle of the boom, and a block (o) being lashed on the sprit-sail yard, the 
fore guy (p) is reeved through it, and made fast to the boom a-midships: the after guy (q) is also bent 
to the boom a-midships, and the other end reeved through a block lashed to a timber-head at the gang¬ 
way. The martingale (s) is reeved through a block lashed to a bolt in the bends, and clinched to a thim¬ 
ble in a strap at the middle of the boom. The tack (r) is reeved through the block (g) at the boom end, 
leading in on the fore-castle, the other is reeved through a block at the gangway. 

To rig the boom out, Fig. 432.—Hoist upon the topping-lift (n), haul out the fore guy (p), and ease 
the after one, when it will come across and appear like Fig. 431. 

The lower studding-sail may now be set, Fig. 433: the outer halliards (r) are bent to the yard with 
a fisherman’s bend, (see page 8): the inner ones (s) to the inner cringle at the head of the sail, with a 
sheet bend, (see page 8): the lack (t) to the outer clew, the sheet (u) to the inner clew. First, haul out 
the tack (t), then hoist up the yard with the outer halliards (r), and when they are belayed, hoist on the 
inner ones (which stretch the head of the sail), and haul taught the sheet (u). 

The top-gallant studding-sail boom (v), Fig. 434, is rigged out by hand, by men on the top-sail yard. 
The tack (w), which is reeved through a thimble at the boom end, is over-hauled into the top, and there, 
with the halliards, bent. In large ships the sail is stopped and hoisted up, and a man on the top-sail 
yard guys it abaft the top-gallant sail, as the top-mast studding-sail was set abaft the top-sail. This 
Figure shows the lower top-mast, and top-gallant studding-sails when set, with their geer. The main 
studding-sails are set in the same manner. 

(To set the lower and top-gallant studding-sails flying, seepage 65). 

If the wind comes to two points on the quarter, like Fig. 435, the weather skirt of the main-sail is 
hauled up, that it may not becalm the sails forward; the lee main top-mast and main top-gallant stud¬ 
ding-sails may be set before the top-sails, as in the Figure. Preventer back-stays should be now got up, 
as the strain on the masts comes from abaft. The runners, hitched round the top-mast heads, will an¬ 
swer this purpose. 


21 




82 


Before the Wind—Wind abaft the Beam—Taking in STUDDING-SAILS. 


— 9 ©©— 

If the wind comes round to south, which is right aft (as per compass, Fig. 438), the spanker, jib and 
stay-sails are hauled down, the mizen top-sail lowered down on the cap, or handed: the main-sail is 
hauled up, the top-mast and top-gallant studding-sails are hauled down forwards: the fore top-sail and 
fore top-gallant sail are lowered down, clewed up and handed, like Fig. 436. 

The spanker is taken in because it will not stand well, or if it did, being so far aft, it would cause 
the ship to steer wild; and the rudder on that account, having one side or the other continually opposed 
to the water, must check the ship’s way considerably. The mizen top-sail is taken in, because it would 
in some measure take the wind out of the main top-sail, and also cause bad steerage, by being so far aft: 
the stay-sails are hauled down, for they will not stand in that direction, and the fore top-sail and fore 
top-gallant sail are clewed up, on account of their being becalmed by the main ones: these two sails are 
furled, to prevent their being injured by flapping against the masts as the ship rolls. (To take in a top¬ 
sail, see page $6). 

The main-sail is hauled up to let the wind into the fore-sail: the sprit-sail is kept set, as it will catch 
wind under the foot of the fore-sail. The studding-sails are sometimes set as in the Figure, two top¬ 
mast and two top-gallant studding-sails aft, and two lower studding-sails forward: the power of the 
sails is thus tolerably divided ; but in this, as in all cases of setting sail, the management must be left to the 
judgment of the officer, knowing the trim of the ship: some vessels sailing better with more sail forward, 
others with more aft, according as they are by the stern or head.—Sometimes, in order to divide the 
effect of the sails, as in Fig. 437, the top-mast and lower studding-sails are set forward, the fore top-sail 
being furled, and the yard hoisted up to the mast-head, the top-gallant studding-sails aft; this, in the 
common cant of seamen, is termed scandalizing the fore topsail yard. Ships which answer their helm 
well, will often sail a knot faster by having both main sheets aft before the wind, the fore-sail being in 
the brails. 

Suppose the wind comes forward again to W. by S. (as per compass, Fig. 439), one point abaft the 
beam, the ship steering north with the studding-sails and stay-sails set, like Fig. 440, and the wind increas¬ 
ing so that it is prudent to lake in sail. The royals, top-gallant studding-sails, sprit-sail top-sail and 
spanker are taken in: the latter will have great power in a strong breeze, and may occasion her to gripe, 
and carry weather helm. 

The top-gallant studding-sails are taken in by lowering the halliards (a), Fig. 441, hauling down 
upon the sheet (b), and easing off the tack (c): when in the top, they are made up, the booms run in and 
lashed to the top-sail yards by the heel lashing, or lowered down on deck. The halliards (a) are un¬ 
reeved from the jewel-blocks at the yard-arms (d), and a figure-of-eight knot (see page 7) being cast on 
the end, they are rounded up to the span-block (e) at the top-gallant mast-head, that they may not im¬ 
pede the lowering of the top-gallant yard (f). The royals, when lowered, must be beckelted, the hal¬ 
liards unbent and hitched round the top-galLant stay, for the same reason. 

If the wind increases, and it be thought proper to take in the lower studding-sail, the sheet (g) is 
stretched aft, Fig. 442, the outer halliards (h) are lowered, the tack (i) eased off, the sail is gathered in on 
the fore-castle, and the inner halliards lowered. The boom is then swung fore and aft, by easing off the 
fore guy (m), Fig. 443, and hauling in upon the after one (n): it is then lashed in the chains, the geer 
coiled upon it, and secured. The block (p) is taken off the sprit-sail yard. 







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83 


TARING IN STUDDING-SAILS—REEFING TOP SAILS, &c. 

—o©©— 


If the wind comes forward the yards are braced up, and the fore top-mast studding-sail hauled down. 
A hand is sent on the fore yard to pass the deck-sheet (o), Fig. 444, abaft the yard: the down-hauler (r) 
is then manned, the halliards (p) are lowered, the yard-sheet (q) eased, and the down-hauler (r) hauled 
on till the yard-arm (s) comes down to the tack-clew (t): the tack (u) is then eased off and the sail hauled 
down, gathering it on the fore-castle by the deck-sheet (o). When this sail is taken in with the wind very 
large it is hauled down forward, the deck-sheet and down-hauler being passed before the yard. The 
yards are braced up, the fore-tack got on board, the sheets aft, and the bow-lines hauled. The sprit- 
sail is reefed, (see Sprit-sail, page 58), the sprit-sail yard topped up with the lee brace, the jib guys set 
up, and the mizen hauled out: she is then close-hauled on the larboard tack again, the wind at W. N. 
W., her head consequently North. 


The top-mast studding-sail boom is rigged in; the geer coiled and stopped on the yard-arm; the 
halliards are unreeved from the jew'el blocks, a figure-of-eight knot cast on the end and rounded up to 
the span-block at the top-mast cap, (as mentioned in the former page for the top-gallant studding-sail 
halliards), that they may not prevent the top-sail yard’s coming down. The Burton tackles, (mentioned 
page 80, Fig. 426), are taken off the top-sail yard and topping-lift pendent. 


If the wind freshens, the main top-gallant stay-sail is hauled down into the fore top, and the mizen 
top-mast stay-sail is stowed. (To haul down the main top-gallant stay-sail, see page 62, Fig. 342). 
The jib is hauled one-third in, and a reef taken in the top-sails. The horses on the yards (in large ships 
particularly) should be moused; for by Fig. 445, it appears that the horse (v) gives way through the 
stirrups (w), with the man who first goes on the yard ; and a boy going on occasionally, is often danger¬ 
ously situated, as he can have but little hold, and certainly do nothing in that state. Now, by the horses 
being moused at proper distances, like Fig. 446, the men may lie out on the yard with twice the expidi- 
dition; and it is much handier for a man or two to go on to let out a reef, &c. for, by this they stand as 
securely on the yard as if it were full manned.—Instead of mousing, the stirrups may be tailed into the 
horses for neatness. 


Before the top-sails are reefed, the top gallant-sails are lowered and clewed up, or clewed up at the 
mast-head : and if the middle stay-sail have no jack-stay, and go with a gromet round the mast, it may 
be hauled down into the fore top, otherwise the fore top-sail yard cannot come down. The halliards (x), 
Fi<*. 447, are let go, the down-hauler hauled on, the sheet (y) eased off'; and when the sail is down to 
the gromet, the stay is eased off, the tricing-line (z) let go, and it comes down into the top. 


In reefing a top-sail, the halliards are let fly, the clew-lines hauled on, and the weather brace rounded 
in, to spill the sail. The reef tackles (a), Fig. 448, are hauled out, and the men go on the yard. ( If the 
bunt-lines (b) be kept fast vjhen the halliards are let go, they assist in spilling the sail). The weather earing 
(c) is first hauled out by the man (d, at the yard-arm; because the lee one is easily got out by the sail 
blowing over to leeward. The men therefore haul the reef over to the man (d), and when at a proper 
distance from the yard-arm, he takes two outer turns, and expends the remainder of the earings in inner 
ones. The lee earing is then passed in the same mariner, the sail hauled well on the yard, and the 
points made fast with reef knots. (See page 7). 


It is plain that two outer turns are sufficient (as shewn in page 53, Fig. 305), their use being only to 
keep the head of the sail on the stretch; whereas the inner turns have the whole strain of the leech to 
bear when the sail is hoisted, and the bow-line hauled. 




84 


Setting and taking in TOP-GALLANT SAILS—Taking in the JIB, &c. 

—©©©— 

Care must be taken that the sails be hauled well upon the yards, and that the points be passed clear 
of the top-gallant sheets. When the men are off the yard the halliards are stretched along, the reef- 
tackles let go, and the top-sails hoisted up, keeping them shaking by the weather braces, (the men in the 
tops overhauling the clew-lines, bunt-lines, and reef-tackles), and when they are up with a taught leech 
the halliards are belayed, the yards braced up, the bow-lines hauled, and the geer coiled up. 


The top-gallant sails are sheeted home and hoisted. The lee sheets of either top-sails or top-gallant 
sails are always hauled home first, (except when going very large), Fig. 449, because the wind blowing 
the sail over to leeward, the lee sheet (i) will almost come home of itself; and then the sail being kept 
shaking by the weather brace, the weather sheet (k) is easily hauled home. She is then like Fig. 450, 
the top-sails reefed, the top-gallant sails set over them, (except the mizen top-gallant sail, which is 
furled), the jib a third in, fore top-mast stay-sail, main top-mast stay-sail, mizen stay-sail and mizen. 


When a ship gripes or carries her helm too much to windward, it is commonly the rule to haul up the 
mizen, and if that be not sufficient, to take in the mizen stay-sail also; but it should be well considered 
what is the occasion of her requiring so much weather helm, otherwise the taking in of these sails, in¬ 
stead of remedying, may greatly increase the defect; for a ship is likely to gripe by having too much 
sail set forward as abaft, the consequence of which is, that she meets with great lateral resistance against 
her bows to leeward; for the head sails may press her down forward, and raise her proportionably abaft: 
and then, the rudder loses a deal of its power to make her ware, by being lifted so much out of water. 
Thus the ship is in the same situation as if she were trimmed by the head, which is well known to be 
much against either sailing or steerage. Therefore, when the ship gripes from this cause, instead of the 
mizen and mizen stay-sail being taken in, the fore top-gallant sail is handed, Fig. 451, which eases her 
forward : she then slackens her helm, consequently makes her way better through the water, by not 
having the flat part of the rudder to drag after her. 


In taking in the fore top-gallant sail, let go the halliards, round in the weather brace, and clew up to 
windward first, (see taking in the fore top-sail, Figs. 458, and 459, page 86), then to leeward, and haul 
up the bunt-line. 


If it blows so fresh that it is necessary to take in the jib, Fig. 453, the down-hauler (m) is manned, 
the halliards (1) are let go, and the down-hauler hauled upon, the sheet (n) eased off, and when it is close 
down on the boom, if the wind is likely to increase, the stay or out-hauler (o) (according as it is rigged, 
see Jib, page 60), is let go: it is hauled in close to the bowsprit cap, (p) and stowed away in the fore top¬ 
mast stay-sail netting (q). [The jib is now fastened upon the boom, and secured by gaskets._ Am. Ed .] 











































































































































































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85 


Hauling down the Main Top-mast Stay-sail—Travelling Back-stay, &c. 


—e®©— 


The wind being now pretty fresh, it may be necessary to take in the main top-gallant sail, and the main 
top-mast stay-sail.— ( For theformer, see Taking in the Fore Top-sail, Fig. 458, page 86). The latter is now 
cut so deep, that it is generally thought to bear as much strain on the mast as the main top-sail. 


The sheet (q), Fig. 454, is eased off, and the lee brail only hauled up, gathering in the slack of the 
weather one (r ); (if the weather one were hauled up first, the sail catching a-back would hold so much wind as, in 
a heavy squall , to prevent its being taken in; its flying out, and flapping violently up and down, might also split or 
damage it): the halliards (s) are let go, and it is hauled down by the down-hauler (t). If it is likely to 
blow hard, it is hauled up on the'fore cat-harpins, and stowed away there, having a gasket passed round 
it. In many ships there are nettings stretched from the futtock shrouds on each side, to secure it the 
better. 


The Burton tackles may be clapped on the top-sail yards, as follows, Fig. 455: the double block 
(v) is hooked to a strap or selvagee, passed round the inner quarter of the yard (w), and the single block 
to a strap round the lower tressle-tree (x): this will act as a down-haul tackle, to haul the yard down 
by, when the ship heels over in a squall; the tendency of the top-sail being then to fly up to the mast 
head. In merchant ships, where the bunt-lines go with monkey blocks (see page 55), they serve as down- 
haulers, as well as the clew-lines. As the wind increases, the second reefs may be taken in the top¬ 
sails, which is done in the same manner as mentioned for the first reef (see page 83), taking care to haul 
the sail well upon the yard over the first reef. 


When a top-sail is double reefed, the strain is taken considerably from the mast head where it lay 
before, and where the rigging immediately counteracted it; on this account, a preventer or travelling 
back-stay is sometimes used as a support to the mast, just above the top-sail yard, for which purpose a 
strong gromet is often worked round the top-mast, or else a strap, Fig. 456, with an eye in each leg (y), 
and a large thimble (z) seized in the bight. This strap (a), Fig. 457, is taken round the mast, the two 
eyes are seized together before it, the thimble (b) laying aft. One of the runners (c) is reeved through 
this thimble, and clinched or hitched round the mast head (d); the lower block of the runner tackle is 
hooked to an eye-bolt in the stool of the top-mast back-stay; the fall is taken through a leading block on 
deck. 


When the top-sail is hoisted, it may be kept shaking by the weather brace, and the strap being slid 
down just above the yard, the travelling back-stay is set up: the sail is then filled, the bow-line hauled, 
the weather brace set taught, and the geer coiled up. 


If the sea runs high, particularly on the beam, caution must be had what sail is set that may cause 
her to gripe: this must entirely depend on the trim of the ship, as some carry their helms very differently 
from others, with the same sail set. If she carries much weather helm, the mizen may be hauled up, 
and the third reef taken in the fore top-sail, which will ease her forward, as her being pressed down in 
the water will prevent her receding from the wind in a sudden squall, or answering the helm when put 
up to avoid a heavy sea, and make it pass aft. In taking in the mizen when the sheet is eased off, the lee 
throat brail is well manned and hauled up, then the other brails, and the weather ones are gathered in. 


If the weather looks angry, and there is reason to expect a heavy gale, the guns must be secured, 
preventer breechings clapped on, and the ports well lashed in: the booms, if there are many on deck, 
must be confined by additional lashings, passed through the span shackles on each side, and flapped. 

22 




86 


Taking in a TOP-SAIL—Getting down TOP-GALLANT YARDS. 

The third reef may be taken in the main top-sail, and the mizen top-sail handed, and if the wind in¬ 
creases, the fore top-sail also. To take in the fore top-sail, the clew-lines, down-haul tackle and weather 
brace are well manned, the halliards are let go, the weather brace hauled in, the weather sheet started, 
and the clew-line hauled up: the bow-line is then let go, the lee sheet started and clewed up, and the 
bunt-lines hauled up. The rolling tackle is clapped on, and the men go on the yard to furl the sail. 

In taking in a top-sail, Fig. 458, the weather sheet (f) is first clewed up, because the sail naturally flies 
to leeward, and keeps full: then the bow-line (e) and lee sheet (d) being let go, the sail catches a-back, 
like Figure 459, and is taken in almost without a shake: for if the lee sheet were eased off first, the sail 
might shake so violently as to split. However, it is sometimes necessary when a vessel is weakly manned, 
to haul the clew-line a little up, in order to get the weather brace in. 

The rolling tackle is clapped on to windward, Fig. 460; the single block of a luff tackle is hooked 
to a strap or a selvagee round the yard at (g), and the double one (h) to an eye-bolt at the lower cap, the 
fall leading down upon deck: when the ship rolls over to leeward, this tackle is bowsed taught and belayed, 
which confines the yard so that it has no play to chafe the mast by the ship’s rolling. The ship will now 
be under the main-sail, fore-sail, close reefed main top-sail, fore top-mast and mizen stay-sails, like Fig. 
461; but if she gripe, the mizen stay-sail is brailed up and hauled down; as the main top-mast stay-sail 
was. (See page 85), Rolling tackles are not used when parrals are fitted as in Fig. 253 and 253 (a). 

The top-gallant yards may now be got down; for which purpose the jack-block (i), Fig. 462, is taken 
aloft, and buttoned round the top-gallant mast: the tye (k) must be cast off the yard, and hitched to the 
strap of the jack-block (i), and the top rope (1) being reeved through it, the block is triced up by the hal¬ 
liards (m). The sheets (n), bow-lines, bunt-lines and clew-lines are cast off, and made fast to the cross- 
trees (o): the top or yard rope is bent to the slings of the yard by a fisherman’s bend (see page 8), and the 
bight (q) carried to leeward and stopped: (or it may be hitched there, and the end bent to the slinks of 
the yard as before) the weather clew-line is bent to the weather lift (if the latter be not long enough to 
lower upon), and the parral cast off. The top or yard rope is then swayed upon, and being stopped at (q), 
it cants the yard, the weather clew-line is eased, the yard rope lowered away a little, and the yard 
stopped to the traveller (w), Fig. 463, on the weather top-mast back-stay. The man (s) in the top-mast 
shrouds unrigs the lower or weather yard-arm, and he on the cross-trees the upper one. The yard is 
then lowered down on deck, being kept to windward by the traveller on the back-stay (w). The 
braces and lifts are made fast to the cross-trees, the yard rope is cast off when the yard is down, unreeved 
from the jack-block, which is unbuttoned and sent down, and the tye hitched to the cross-trees. 

The top-gallant top block (t), Fig. 464, being hooked to the eye-bolt in the larboard side of the top¬ 
mast cap, the top-rope is reeved through it, through the sheave-hole in the top-gallant mast, and the end 
is hitched to the eye-bolt in the starboard side of the cap (u). 

If the top-gallant masts are to be struck, the stays and rigging are eased off; the top rope is swayed 
upon, the fid (v) taken out, and the mast lowered down: when low enough, the top rope is belayed, and 
a heel lashing passed through the fid hole and round the top-mast; but it is preferable to lower the masts 
down on deck. 























































































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87 


Close Reefed TOP SAILS over Reefed COURSES—WARING under COURSES. 


The main top-sail may be taken in as the fore top-sail was ; but this sail is so indispensable in a heavy 
sea in waring, scudding, or laying to, that when a ship is thought to have too much canvass, it is better 
to keep the top-sails set, close reefed, and to reef the courses. The tacks may be got close down, even 
then, by bowsing well on the lee lift, and canting the yard; and the lee part of the sail being elevated, 
the sea may pass under; but in double reefed courses, this could not be done without settling the yard, 
and the top-sails prevent that. 

It has been made an objection, without any reason, that the main and fore tacks cannot be got close 
down without the lower yards being settled, by casting off the slings and easing the jears; but this circum¬ 
stance is attended with inconvenience ; for when a ship is reduced to such small canvas, there is generally a 
heavy sea running, which in breaking, often strikes the bellies of the main and fore-sails ; whereas when 
these sails are reefed, as represented by Fig. 465, the tacks not being close down, consequently the feet 
of the sails elevated, the sea passes under them, and this may prevent their splitting—a not uncommon 
occurrence when the yards are settled. 


Close reefed top-sails over double reefed courses, are frequently carried, which are found to answer re¬ 
markably well, particularly with a few hands ; for if the gale increases, the close reefed top-sails are soon 
handed, and the ship is then reduced to very small canvas, viz: double reefed courses, which may be also 
soon taken in, when obliged to lie under any of the lower stay-sails. 


Let it be supposed that the main top-sail is handed as before mentioned, and the fore top-mast stay¬ 
sail hauled down (see taking in the jib, page 84)* and stowed away in the netting. The ship will then 
be under courses; it will be necessary to bring the yard tackles aft, for preventer braces, and preventer 
sheets may also be reeved. 

The ship is now on the larboard tack: if it be thought expedient to get her on the starboard one, it is 
done by waring; for which purpose the main clew garnets are well manned: when every thing is ready, 
Fig. 466, the mizen top-sail and cross jack yards are squared, the main tack and bow-line eased off, and 
the weather clew-garnet hauled up, for the reason before-mentioned in starting the weather sheets of the 
top-sail (see page 86): the main sheet is then eased off, the lee clew-garnet hauled up, and the bunt-lines 
and leech-lines: the main and main top-sail yards are squared, and the helm put a-weather. 


As she falls off, like Fig. 467, the fore bow-line is let go, the fore sheet eased off, and the weather or 
larboard braces gathered in forward: when she is before the wind, Fig. 468, the starboard tacks are got 
on board, and the main sheet hauled aft; but the weather braces are kept in forward. When the main 
tack is difficult to be got down, a luff-tackle is hooked to the lower bow-line cringle, or to a lizard spliced 
into the bow-line bridle for that purpose: as she comes to, like Fig. 469, the helm is eased, that she may 
not fly up too rapidly, the fore sheet is hauled flat aft, the yards braced sharp up, the bow-lines hauled, 
the weather braces set taught, and the rolling tackles (see page 86) shifted to the starboard side, and the 
geer coiled up. 




88 


Getting in the SPRIT-SAIL YARD—Waring under a MAINSAIL. 

The JIB-BOOM may be now run in to ease her in her ascending motions. The SPRIT-SAIL 
YARD may be also got fore and aft; for which purpose a block (c) Fig. 470, is hooked to a selvagee on 
the fore top-mast stay, with the top or yard rope (d) reeved through it. This is bent to the slings of the 
yard to windward of the bowsprit, and hove taught: the parral and slings are then cast oft’, (if halliards 
(b) be carried, they are eased as the yard is got in) the starboard lift (e) and the larboard brace (a) are eased 
oft', the larboard lift (f) and the starboard brace (g) are hauled upon, the yard rope (d) eased, and the 
yard is thus got fore and aft, and may be either lashed along-side of the bowsprit, or got in upon deck. 
See (Fig. 1 plate 32), where the sprit-sail yard is slung with a swivel, and may be got lore and aft with¬ 
out the top rope. [This is not practised. But few vessels are to be found now that do not carry their 
jib-booms run out as long as they will stand.— Am. Ed.~\ 

If the gale increases so that she must be laid to, and under the mainsail, the weather fore clew-garnet 
is manned, the tack and bow-line eased off, and the clew-garnet hauled up, then the lee one, &c. as be¬ 
fore. The yard is pointed to the wind by the weather brace, the trusses hauled taught, the rolling tackle 
(see page 86) clapped on, and the hands sent on the yard to furl the sail. It is furled as mentioned in 
page 53.—N. B. The fore-sail might be taken in whilst waring, as in the former page. The helm is put 
sufficiently a-lee to keep her in the wind. 

Ships which have to ware when lying to under this sail, generally do it by hoisting the fore or fore 
top-mast stay-sails, as shewn in the next page, when lying to under a mizen ^Lay-sail; but if these should 
be carried away, the mizen top-sail and cross jack yards are got down, thg gafflowered, and the mizen 
top-mast struck, like Fig. 471; all these lying so far abaft the centre of gravity, are a hinderance to a 
ship’s waring, particularly in the present situation. The head yards are filled, and the opportunity taken 
of her falling off, and getting head-way to put the helm a-weather; the main sheet is eased off, and as 
she falls off, the weather brace is gathered in, and when she brings the wind abaft the beam, like Fig. 
472, the main tack is raised: when before the wind, the larboard tack is got on board; when the wind 
is on the larboard quarter, the helm is eased, as her coming to will be rapid: then the sheet is hauled 
aft, the yards are braced up as in waring under courses; the helm is to leeward, and she is lying to as 
before, on the larboard tack. If the jib-boom were run out at the time of her falling off, it might assist 
her in waring: the weather fore shrouds might also be manned with as many hands as can lie on them. 

If she will not ware by the above method, the fore-sail is loosed, and she is wore as under courses; 
or if there is any risk in loosing the foresail, a hawser is veered over the lee quarter, as mentioned in page 
90, which will be certain to pay her off. Merchant ships formerly carried a span, called a Quick-saver: 
this was hauled taught when waring under courses, to keep them from bellying so much forward when 
from the wind, and the sheets eased off. This is still frequently used in the Merchant service , and is of material 
benefit in either waring or staying , when a vessel is lightly manned. 

This span was also of great use in waring a ship under a mainsail. The ends were made fast to the 
main yard, as in Fig. 473, and a thimble (a) being worked in the middle leg, a laniard (having one end 
made fast to the top-sail sheet bitts) was reeved through it, and then hauled taught, when the ship came 
to; and when the main sheet was eased oft’, this kept the weather side of the main-sail full, and gave it all 
its power to act before the centre, and assist her in waring. 

If the mainsil should split, it is hauled up as before directed; but before it is taken in, the mizen stay¬ 
sail is hoisted, and the sheet got aft with a luff-tackle. The main-sail is handed, as mentioned in page 
53. When the sail is furled, the rope-bands are cast off, made fast round the sail, and one hitched to 
each bunt-line (n), Fig. 474: the gaskets are then cast off, the lee earing (o) eased away, and the sail 
lowered by the lee bunt-lines, leech-line, &c. When the lee part is on deck, the weather earing (p) is 
eased, and the sail lowered to windward. 




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89 


LYING TO UNDER DIFFERENT SAILS—WARING. 

-©!©©— 

When the sail is on deck the geer is cast off, and if the weather permit, another is bent, as described 
by the Figure in bending the fore-sail, page 53. 

The ship is now lying to under the mizen stay-sail, like Fig. 475, which being so far aft keeps her well 
to the wind; but she cannot ware without the fore, or fore top-mast stay-sail. When this is done, the op¬ 
portunity is taken of her falling off, to haul down the mizen stay-sail, put the helm up, fill the head yards, 
and hoist the fore top-mast stay-sail, like Fig. 476. The weather braces are gathered in as before. When 
she is before the wind, the fore top-mast stay-sail is hauled down, and when she comes round, like Fig. 
477, so as to bring the wind on the starboard quarter, the mizen stay-sail is again hoisted, and the lar¬ 
board sheet got aft. The helm is eased according to her coming to; the yards are pointed to the wind, 
the helm put to leeward, and she lies to again under the mizen stay-sail. 


Some ships are laid to under this sail and the mizen, others under a mizen only, like Fig. 478, in 
order to keep her well to the wind; but the disadvantage of laying to under a mizen is very great; for 
however well it may keep her to, she is liable to receive much injury by it; as it is evident that the 
whole strain of laying the ship down is now placed on the weakest part. The main breadth and greatest 
cavity being so far forward, the pressure that is to force that cavity down in the water, to ease the roll¬ 
ing, ought to be as near to it as possible; whereas, here it is the reverse. The impropriety of laying 
a stiff ship to under this sail, cannot be better exemplified, than by considering what would be the pro¬ 
bable consequence of heaving her down (would the mast bear it) by the mizen-mast alone. 

A heavy rolling ship, whose centre of gravity lies low, will require a lofty sail to keep her steady in 
the water, and lay her down for that purpose. A close reefed main top-sail, Fig. 479, is generally used 
for such a ship to lie to under. [And as a general rule, the best of all sails to lie to, or with a fore-sail to 
scud under.— Am. Ed.~\ 

For ships which are not so stiff, of course easier in the sea, a main stay-sail, Fig. 480, is reckoned 
the most eligible single sail, as it strains the ship less than any other, by lying immediately over the 
greatest cavity, and its power is divided between the main and fore masts. 

When the weather and circumstances permit, it is judged better to divide the pressure amongst the 
three lower stay-sails and mizen, like Fig. 481. Under these sails she will fall less to leeward, her way 
being' kept up, and she may be easily wore, by taking in the mizen and mizen stay-sail, filling the 
head yards, and clapping the helm a-weather. 


Many ships which are much by the stern, will lie best to under the fore-sail, like Fig. 482,; because 
they require to be pressed down forward : for when a ship in this trim endeavors to lie to under any 
after sail, she has all the lateral resistance aft, and little forward, to prevent her falling off. The breadth 
being now so forward, and the fore-mast stepped well aft, the strain on the ship is not so injurious under 
this sail as it formerly was, and it is immediately on the stongest part. 


23 




90 


WARING UNDER BARE POLES—SCUDDING. 

—OQ©— 


Suppose the ship to be in that distressed condition, as to have lost all her lower canvas, and that 
lying to under bare poles, she has no sail to ware by. Ships which are much by the stern, and do not 
lie to well, will often ware under bare poles, by filling the head yards; but vessels in a proper trim will 
seldom do it. It is the custom in this case to veer a good scope of a hawser or cablet over the lee quar¬ 
ter, like Fig. 483, with a buoy, &c. attached to the end, to keep it from sinking, and to make stopwaters. 
The effect of the hawser may be there seen; for being veered away out of one of the lee or starboard 
quarter ports, the ship drops to leeward, and the effort of the hawser, lying so far to windward, moves 
to the centre of rotation (by the check her stern receives) so far aft, as to turn her nearly round upon her 
heel. (Thus it is commonly known when a ship takes the ground a-stern, as mentioned in page 74, the turning 
centre being there fixed , she falls round off from the wind). When before the wind, the hawser is immedi¬ 
ately roused in. 


If the vessel (being as above, without lower canvas) lie to under bare poles, and from some unex¬ 
pected cause, such as a ship being discovered at day-light so close upon her to windward, that she must 
by any means be wore, to avoid the dreadful consequence of the other’s falling on board (and there is not 
a moment’s time to lose in veering a hawser out, which may not be immediately at hand), the only ex- 
pe iient appears to be (which would not be attempted but to avoid such a disaster, when every risk must 
be run), to box-haul her by the yards. (Box-hauling is described in page 93,). 


Keep the helm hard a-lee, and if the top-gallant mast be down on deck, run the top-sail yards half 
or two-thirds up, brace the head yards sharp aback with the larboard braces, and lay the after ones 
square, like Fig. 484; this will give her powerful sternway, and the after or starboard side of the rudder 
being pressed against the water, will check the stern, something like the effect of the hawser, conse¬ 
quently help the head yards to box her off’rapidly: when she has fallen off, fill the head yards to give her 
head-way, put the helm a-weather (or to port), gathering in the weather brace, as in waring: w^hen the 
wind is on the larboard quarter, Fig. 4S5, keep the top-sail yard still up, to avoid the stern-board of the 
sea, as described below in scudding, for in this situation the way lost to leeward is not to be considered, 
provided there be sea room. Proceed as in waring (see page S8), and as she comes to, right the helm, 
and haul down the top-sail yards, by the clew-lines and down-haul tackles: point the yards to the 
wind, &c., as before.—This is mentioned merely as a resource in case of emergency, as the sea might 
break over the ship, and the rudder might be endangered by the powerful sternway. 


Suppose the ship to be lying to under the three lower stay-sails and mizen, or without the latter, like 
Fig. 486, and that it be thought prudent to bear away and scud ; then the close reefed main top-sail must 
be loosed and sheeted home, the fore-sail loosed, the larboard tack got down, and the starboard sheet aft. 
The mizen must be hauled up, if set, the mizen and main stay-sails down, the fore stay-sail may be kept 
up as an off sail, and to assist in waring; the main and top-sail braces hauled in to shiver the top-sail, 
and the helm put up: when, she is before the wind, the yards are squared, and both fore sheets hauled aft. 


The use of the close reefed main top-sail, Fig. 487, will now be evident; for without it, when the ship 
is in the trough of a sea, the lower part of the fore-sail may be becalmed, and her headway by this so 
diminished, that she may be pooped by the following sea, and the violence of it against the counter be 
fatal; but with the close reefed main top-sail set like the figure, she will have so much way that it can 
never reach her to do much injury. If the main top-sail should by any accident be split, it will be still 
necessary to have a lofty sail set in such a sea, and the close reefed fore top-sail singly will be the best 
to scud under. 









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Brought by the Lee—Striking Top-masts—Top-sail Yards kept across. 


In scudding under a close-reefed main top-sail and fore-sail some few ships are apt to steer wild, and 
to broach to; on which account, the fore or fore top-mast stay-sail is kept set; which, in case of flying 
to, will act as an off-sail; and as the braces must be always attended to in any ship which steers rather 
wild, she may be managed without much danger. Care must be taken to have a good helmsman on 
this occasion, and to see that he be well relieved. A cablet or hawser towed over the stern is sometimes 
used to prevent a ship from broaching to. 

Steering with these sails with the wind on the quarter, vessels are more liable to be brought by the 
lee than to be broached to. This generally happens from the neglect of the helmsman: the sails lying 
against the masts the ship is in a dangerous situation, exposed to the sea, which may break over her, by 
her laying dead in the water (the sails catching a-back) till the yards are braced about. The Ship, Fig. 
488, sailing with the wind on the quarter, under a close-reefed main top-sail and fore-sail, flies off, and 
brings the wind on the starboard side, which takes the sails a-back, and she lies exposed to the sea, like 
Fig. 4S9; therefore, to guard against an accident of this nature, (in a ship with few hands), it is usual 
to keep a tackle hooked to the lee clew of the fore-sail, the double block being carried to the cat-head, 
and the fall stretched aft, in order to get the tack down, as the yards must be braced about immediately; 
and when she gets headway she may be brought gradually round with the wind on the larboard quarter 
as before. Should this happen in the night, it would perhaps be best to clew up the fore-sail, brace about 
the main top-sail, and lay her to under that sail upon the starboard tack till day-light; for, before the 
yards could be braced about, (except in a man-of-war, or other ship stoutly manned), in the confusion 
which sometimes unavoidably occurs in the night, a sea might break upon her, and lodging in the belly 
of the fore-sail, split it; at the same time, (if the rigging were bad), the shock laying upon the fore-stay, 
might spring or carry away the fore-mast. 

It is supposed by some that when steering in a heavy sea, with the wind on the quarter, a ship is 
under more command without the fore-sail and main top-sail: instead of which the close-reefed fore topr 
sail and main top-mast stay-sail are carried like Fig. 490. The fore top-mast stay-sail may be also 
hoisted: if the ship fly off, the fore top-sail is soon braced about, and the larboard main top-mast stay¬ 
sail sheet gathered aft, so that her headway would be scarcely impeded. 

It is possible that a ship may be obliged from particular circumstances, (such as being very crank, 
&c.), to strike her top-masts at sea. In a heavy rolling ship this would only increase the defect, by 
moving the centre of gravity lower down. At all events, when this is done, the top-sail yards should be 
kept across, like Fig. 491, because it may happen, from damage-done to the bowsprit, on which the 
masts so much depend, she may be obliged to loose the fore-sail and bear away; and the close-reefed 
main top-sail may be carried on the main top-mast, above the lower cap, with safety, the backstays 
being sheep-shanked (see page 12) and set up. A preventer top-rope may be taken through the fid-hole 
of the top-masts, and led through a block lashed round the lower mast-head. If the top-sail yards were 
down, in this situation, the ship having no lofty sail set to give her sufficient way from a high following 
sea, the consequences might be serious; but with these yards across, should even the fore-sail split in¬ 
setting, the close-reefed fore top-sail is an excellent sail to scud under, set ia the same manner,. 




92 


STAYING AGAINST A HEAD SEA, &c. 

—e©©- 


Suppose the weather to be now more moderate, and the ship under the main-sail, fore-sail, close- 
reefed top-sails, mizen, and fore top-mast stay-sail: as the wind slackens the second reefs are shook out 
of the fore and main top-sails; for which purpose the yards are settled a little, to ease the strain in cast¬ 
ing off the points; the reef tackles may also be bowsed taught. Care is taken that all the points are let 
go before the earings are eased; otherwise, a point being left fast, like (r), Fig. 492, may split the sail, 
by the whole strain of the canvas being upon it. In shaking out a reef the lee earing is eased off before 
the weather one. 


Whilst this is doing the top-gallant masts may be swayed upon and Added, the mizen top-mast 
swayed up, the gaff hoisted, and the rigging set up by a Spanish windlass, (see page 46), except in large 
ships, where they use a Burton. When the reels are out of the top-sails they are hoisted up with a 
taught leech, being kept shaking by the weather brace. The mizen top-sail yard is got across (by a top 
or yard-rope, reeved through the block or sheave-hole at the mast-head), like the top-gallant yard. (See 
pages 47 and 48). The cross jack-yard is swayed up by a tackle hooked to an eye-bolt in the mizen 
cap, and slung. The jib-boom is run out and the sprit-sail yard got across, as mentioned in page 41. 
The other reefs are shook out of the lop-sails, the mizen top-sail and mizen set; and if the wind come 
forward the yards are braced sharp up, the tacks got on board, and the bowlines hauled. 


The ship is on the starboard tack, close hauled, Fig. 493, under the three top-sails, fore top-mast 
stay-sail, fore-sail, main-sail, mizen stay-sail, and mizen. 


When it is thought proper to get her on the other tack, every attention will be necessary to make her 
stay, as from the blowing weather she has had, there will of course be a heavy sea, which will continue 
to strike on the weather bow on every attempt to tack, and tend to pay her head off again. The fore 
top-mast stay-sail, on this account, is hauled down. 


When every thing is ready, taking advantage of the smoothest water, the ship, Fig. 493, is gradually 
luffed up with as little helm as necessary from the known trim, and the word, the Helm’s a-lee! is 
given, the fore sheet being let go. When she is come up to the position of Fig. 494, the sails will shake. 
As soon as she'brings the wind a point on the weather bow, like Fig. 495, the word is given, Mainsail 
Haul! The main tack, sheet, after bow-lines, and lee braces being let go, the after yards will nearly 
fly round of themselves, by the wind acting aback on their starboard or weather leeches; and when the 
wind is right ahead, the after sails being becalmed, the main tack is easily got down : the mizen stay-sail 
sheet may be now shifted. (If the headway cease at this time, the helm is put a-starboard, that the starboard 
or after side of the rudder being pressed against the water by the sternway, which she will immediately have, may 
cast her stern to port, consequently her head to starboard).* 


As soon as she brings the wind on the larboard or weather bow, her falling off will be very rapid by 
the sternway; (the helm, on that account is shifted to port or a-weather, that the larboard side of the rudder 
being opposed to the water may moderate the falling off), and the word is immediately given to let go and 
haul! The fore tack and head bow-lines are raised, and the head yards braced about; but the wea¬ 
ther braces are kept in. When she gets headway, the helm is righted; and as she comes to, the yards 
are braced sharp up, and the bow-lines hauled: she will be then on the larboard tack, like Fig. 496. 
The fore top-mast stay-sail is hoisted again.—N. B. If the headway cease before she brings the wind 
a-head, she is certain to miss stays, and fall off again. 


* See note, at the bottom of page 79- 


































































































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93 


MISSING STAYS—WARING SHORT ROUND—BOX-HAULING. 

— 

Suppose the ship, Fig. 497, be on the starboard tack, as before, that in attempting to tack she has 
missed stays, and that all being trimmed sharp again, it is intended to try her a second time. In a mer¬ 
chant vessel where there are few hands, she is luffed up as before, and the fore sheet let go; but as her 
staying is doubtful, the principal object is to get the main-sail hauled, and if she falls off, the mizen and 
mizen stay-sails are brailed up, and the fore sheet hauled aft again, like Fig. 498. 

The cause of her missing stays is the sea (a), which boxes her head off again; therefore when the 
main-sail is hauled, the after sails lying a-back, give her sternway; and the fore sheet being hauled aft 
again, the head sails being full, pay her round off, and the helm being kept a-lee, assists them by the 
sternway, by having the after or larboard side of the rudder forced against the water. If hands can be 
spared, the main-sail may be hauled up. When she has fallen off so as to bring the wind on the quar¬ 
ter, like Fig. 499, the main tack is easily got down, the after sails shaking by the wind blowing on their 
leeches. At the time she gets headway, the helm is put a-starboard. When she is before the wind, 
like Fig. 500, the head yards are braced about, and the larboard fore tack got on board; and when the 
wind comes on the larboard quarter, the mizen is hauled out, the mizen stay-sail hoisted, and the wea¬ 
ther braces kept in forward, to let her come to; as she comes to, the helm is righted, as in waring (see 
page 79), and the yards are braced sharp up, hauling the bow-lines, &c. as before. 


When a man-of-war or other ship, having plenty of hands on board, will not stay, she is box-hauled 
as follows:—The ship, Fig. 497, being on the starboard tack as before, and refusing stays, the helm is 
kept a-lee, the main-sail and mizen hauled up, and the mizen stay-sail down; the after yards are squared, 
the fore tack and head bow-lines raised, the head yards braced sharp a-back; and if the fore top-mast 
stay-sail beset, the weather sheet is hauled over, like Fig. 501. (The main and mizen topsails lying 
a-back with the yards square, will give her sternway, and the helm* being a-lee or to port, the larboard side of the 
rudder meeting with such resistance, helps her head to cast to port, the foresail and fore top-sail lying against the 
masts with the starboard braces hauled sharp up, and the lee bow-lines forward, with the fore top-mast stay-sail pay¬ 
ing her round, and rapidly off). When she has fallen off so as to bring the wind on the starboard quar¬ 
ter, like Fig. 499, (the starboard after braces having been gathered in as she fell off), the larboard main and 
fore tacks, may be got on board with ease, because the yard-arms being in the wind’s eye at that time, 
the sails are shaking: when she gets headway (which by this management she will not do much before 
she brings the wind aft), the helm is shifted to starboard; and when the wind comes on the larboard 
quarter, as in waring (see page 79), the mizen is hauled out, the mizen stay-sail hoisted, the weather 
braces kept in forward, the fore top-mast stay-sail sheet kept flying, and as she comes to, the helm 
is righted, and all trimmed sharp. 

As the wind becomes less powerful, the jib is hauled out, the sprit-sail yard topped, the jib guys set 
up, the dolphin-striker rigged, and the martingale stays set up. (See Jib, page 60). The main top-mast 
stay-sail is cast out of the fore cat-harpins, and set, as also the middle stay-sail. (See these sails, page 61). 
The top-gallant yards are got ready for sending up. The sails are made well up on the yards, leaving the 
bunt-line cringles, bow-line bridles and clews out; and the yards are got across as described in pages 47 
and 48. The seizings are clapped on the parral, the sheets, clew-lines, bunt-lines and bow-lines bent. 
The sails are loosed, the lee sheets hauled home, then the weather ones (as described in page 84), the 
sails hoisted, the yards braced up, and the bow-lines hauled. 


* See Note at the bottom of page 79, concerning Helm and Sternway. 

24 






94 


HEAVING TO—SOUNDING. 

—— 

When two ships heave to, to speak, the jib and fore top-mast stay-sails are hauled down, the courses 
brailed up, the top-gallant sails lowered, and sometimes clewed up, the helm put a-lee, and one of the 
top-sails laid aback. The ship, Fig. 502, being to windward, is hove to by laying the main top-sail 
a-back, that she may the more readily fill, without falling off so as to risk running on board the ship, 
Fig. 503; but the latter ship being to leeward, is hove to with the fore top-sail to the mast, that she may 
box her head off, and keep clear of the ship which is to windward; for she will only have to haul up the 
mizen, run up the jib and fore top-mast stay-sail, keeping the after sails shivering by the weather braces, 
and she will fall off. 

If the weather ship, Fig. 502, by accident come too near the lee one, and the latter do not wear in 
time to clear her, as she may be becalmed by the weather one, then the weather ship braces her mizen 
top-sail sharp a-back, squares the head yards, drops her main-sail and claps her helm hard a-port or a- 
weather, like Fig. 504. The head yards being square, drive her a-stern: the after ones, with the assist¬ 
ance of the main-sail, greatly add to the sternway, and keep her head to; and the larboard or after side 
‘ of the rudder meeting with such great resistance, forces her stern to starboard, consequently prevents 
her falling off; but if she be inclined to lose her wind, the fore top-sail is kept shaking. 

When running for land, the CHAINS or CABLES should be bent: these are run out of the hawse 
holes, having a hawse rope jpent to their ends of a sufficient length, and reeved through the rings of their 
respective anchors; the bights are then hauled up. The end of each cable (a), Fig. 505, is taken over 
and under the bight (b), forming the shape of the clinch, which must not be larger than the ring of the 
anchor (d). The seizings (c), which are called the BENDS, are then clapped on and crossed. The 
anchors are got over the side by the runner and yard tackles, and hung by the stoppers and shank pain¬ 
ters. (See page 69). A long range of the cables is hauled up, the tiers are all clear for running, and the 
stoppers and ring-ropes got ready. (See page 109). When of chain, it is shackled to the ring, Fig. 10, 
page 112. 

When soundings are tried for, it is done by the deep-sea lead, on the bottom of which is put a com¬ 
position of tallow: this is called arming the lead: so that when it touches the ground, it brings up some 
of that substance which lies on the surface, such as sand, coral, shells, oaze, &c. and by these (from re¬ 
peated trials being made and marked on the charts), the bearings of certain head-lands, rocks, buoys, 
sands, &c. are generally known. 

If a ship be going free with a light breeze, soundings may be got by passing the lead to windward from 
the quarter along the waist to the cat-head: or if that be not sufficient, a hand is sent out to the sprit-sail vard- 
arm (a), Fig. 506, and another (carrying the bight of the line) to the jib-boom end (b). The man (a) 
heaves the lead from him, and the man (b), swings it forward: as the ship advances, the line being veered 
away from a reel, a hand in the mizen chains (d) gets the soundings. The bight of the line is then put 
into a small snatch block made fast to the mizen shrouds, hauled in, and reeled up. 




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95 


SOUNDING—BOX AND CLUB HAULING. 

— 

If the ship have too much way, she may be stopped by bringing her gradually to the wind, brailing 
up the mizen and mizen stay-sail, and squaring a-back the mizen top-sail, like Fig. 507. When it blows 
rather brisk, the ship is hove to by either the main or fore top-sails, laying those yards square: when 
with the former, the bight of the lead-line is taken up from the weather quarter to the lee main yard arm, 
like Fig. 508, and the main yard laid square, the helm being put a-lee: when she comes to, the lead is 
hove from the lee gang-way, and swung out by the man on the main yard (d). The ship being hove in 
the wind, her way is stopped, and she then drops to leeward by her sternway, near to the place where 
the lead was hove. When she is brought to by the fore top-sail, the line being passed to windward, as 
lead being hove according to her way, she brings her stern over it, when the soundings are got as before: the 
in the former page, the head yards are braced sharp a-back, like Fig. 509, the helm put down, and the 
head yards as she falls off are then filled again. 


If the two ships, Figs. 508 and 507, be near the land, and sailing close-hauled on the larboard tack, 
to keep the weather shore on board, and the former suddenly see danger a-head, and to windward, so 
that she cannot tack, and if she ware, she will be foul of Fig. 507, she is box-hauled, as before mention¬ 
ed in page 93. She therefore claps the helm a-lee, hauls up the mainsail, brails up the mizen and mizen 
stay-sail, squares the after yards, lets go the fore tack, sheet, bow-lines and lee braces, braces the head 
yards sharp a-back, like Fig. 509, and hauls over the weather jib and fore top-mast stay-sail sheets: 
she will then pay round off on her heel. When the ship to leeward sees her companion a-back, she puts 
her helm a-weather, hauls up the mainsail, mizen, and mizen stay-sail, lets go the after bow-lines and 
and lee braces, shivering the after sails, and bearing away, like Fig. 510; but if the ship to windward 
be rather too much a-head, then she acts as described in the former page by Fig. 504. 


When two ships on different tacks are in danger of running foul of each other, it is always expected 
by seamen, that the vessel on the larboard tack accommodates the other by putting her helm up or down, 
as occasion may require. [The Courts have decided that such is the usage.— Am. Ed.~] 


If a ship by accident is so near a lee shore with a head sea as to make it certain that she will not 
stay, she is box-hauled ; putting her helm gradually down as if she were going about, and then proceed¬ 
ing" as mentioned in one of the methods, according to her strength of hands, in page 93 ; but if she is too 
near even to venture on that, she puts down her helm, and when the headway is stopped lets go the lee 
anchor, which brings her head to wind, and then casts on the other tack by the sails, (as in heaving up 
the anchor), and cuts the cable. This is called CLUB-HAULING. 


The ship, Fig. 511, being on the starboard tack and close in shore, luffs up, lets fly the fore and fore 
top-mast stay-sail sheets, and as she comes in the wind lets go the lee or larboard anchor, which brings 
her head to wind, like Fig. 512 ; she then raises the main tack, sheet, after bow-lines and lee braces, hauls 
the main-sail as in tacking, and rights the helm; when the main tack is on board she cuts the cable; 
the head sails being a-back, pay her off. As she is certain to have stern-way, the helm may (if she fall 
off too rapidly), be put a little a-weather; the after or larboard side of the rudder being pressed against 
the water, checks her stern from coming to windward ; consequently, prevents her head from falling loo 
rapidly off. As she falls off, the head-yards are braced about: when she gets head-way the helm, is 
righted and all trimmed sharp, and she is then on the larboard tack, like Fig. 513. If there be time, a 
hawser (a) may be bent to the larboard anchor or cable, Fig. 512, as a spring, and led out of one of the 
quarter ports to leeward, which being hauled upon when the cable is cut, will help to cast her, by bring' 
ing her stern to windward. 




96 


A SHIP ON HER BEAM ENDS. 

In carrying a press of sail, if by a sudden squall, canting the ballast, &c. a ship be laid on her beam 
ends, the method of righting her without cutting away the masts, (which is to be avoided if possible) is 
by a hawser, having strong stop-waters to it, such as spars, hen coops, See. veered out over the lee quarter, 
as mentioned in waring under bare poles. 


When a ship is laid down in this manner, the sails lose much of their power by the horizontal position 
of the masts, and are in a great measure becalmed by the hull, as may be seen by Fig. 514. The haw¬ 
ser has the effect shewn in Fig. 483, page 90. The wind acting powerfully against the hull of the ship 
thus laid over, gives her great drift to leeward, and the spars, &c. having such hold in the water to wind¬ 
ward, draws her stern towards the wind when hauled upon, and will certainly ware her so as to bring 
the wind aft; but then losing its power, it must be cut, and whether the ship will turn so far as to bring 
the wind on the starboard quarter, is doubtful; but if a spring (a), Fig. 515, could be brought aft from 
the starboard side of the forecastle, or from the fore-mast, which lies out over the side like a lever, made 
fast to the hawser (b), and hauled on when she brings the wind aft, and is sure to have headway, this 
check to her forwards might cause her stern to fall off to port, and bring the wind on the starboard 
quarter, which will then have the flat part of the deck to act against, and give more power to spring; the 
sails may then be trimmed to assist in righting her; but this would be impracticable, on account of the 
after masts, yards, rigging, &c. laying also over to leeward. The figure is drawn without the masts, to 
render it more distinct. 


When there is anchoring ground, the practice is to let go the lee anchor, which brings the vessel’s head 
to wind, like Fig. 516: in this case, the strongest part of the ship is exposed to the sea, and the wind 
catching the sails a-back, she may be cast on the starboard tack as in club-hauling, when the ballast or 
other materials may be shifted. 


If a ship at sea, where no ground is to be got, could be brought head to wind, instead of waring her 
with the hawser, it would be much better. A stout spar, like Fig. 517, with a span (a) of sufficient 
length, and a hawser (b) bent to it, will keep a ship’s head to the sea, which will not lie to under any 
of the lower sails ; and a similiar aid might be applied to a ship overset; which would be certain to have 
the effect of bringing her to the wind. The end of the hawser (b), Fig. 514, being brought from the 
bows without board, to windward, and taken aft, the spar might be there bent and launched overboard, 
veering away a good scope, as the ship drifts to leeward; and being belayed when far enough, her head 
would be checked, her stern fly off, and she would fall wind-iode; and might be cast as before mentioned. 


Every method should be tried in preference to cutting away the masts, which should never be re¬ 
sorted to but to prevent foundering. If the ballast have shifted, the cutting away of the masts will not 
right, though it may lighten her; and many instances have occurred besides the under-mentioned (a re¬ 
markable one), of vessels remaining a long time in this state, after being dismasted, without being able 
to right them.—A letter from Portsmouth, dated September the 19th, 1797, mentioned, “that the Joanna 
of Embden, Capt. Renhaut , fell in with the Recovery schooner , John Fluin, Master , laden with fish. She 
was laid on her beam ends, the masts and rigging were cut away, and they had been in that state for 
seventeen days, without any means of recovering her: three of the men died for want, and the master and 
two seamen subsisted on a favorite Newfoundland dog , which they were obliged to kill.” 











































































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97 


COMING TO AN ANCHOR. 

—o©©- 

If the land is made near the destined port, the ship being close hauled (suppose on the larboard tack), 
and she can fetch a place of safety to remain in till the wind comes round, there being no tide to 
check her, the top-gallant sails, courses, jib and stay-sails are taken in: then, with the fore top-mast stay¬ 
sail, mizen and three top-sails, like Fig. 518, she stands on till near her birth: the buoy is streamed, 
(having hands stationed at the stopper and shank painter, and every thing clear of the range of the cable) 
the fore top-mast stay-sail hauled down, and the helm is put down to leeward ; when she is in the wind, 
the main and fore top-sail halliards are let fly, the weather braces are hauled in, the sheets started, and 
the sails clewed up: the mizen top-sail is hove a-back, and when she gets sternway, the helm is righted, 
and the anchor let go: Fig. 519, the proper scope of cable is veered away according to the strength of 
the wind, the stopper is clapped on forward, the bight of the cable thrown over the bitts, and the stop¬ 
pers are clapped on aft. (See page 109). The hands are then sent on the yards to furl the sails. 

If there is so little wind that it is necessary to continue the mizen top-sail set, to keep her a-stern of 
her anchor, the short service only is veered out; because the ship not having power to keep it taught, 
the cable may be injured by being dragged on the ground. If the wind be pretty strong when she is 
brought up, the mizen top-sail may be taken in with the others: the mizen will bring her head to wind, 
she will get stern way, and the anchor may be let go, veering away the proper scope of cable. 

When a vessel comes to an anchor , (particularly in a tide-vjay), it is always prudent to take three reefs in the 
top-sails before they are handed , as they will be ready , should a sudden gale arise , if there is a necessity for running 
out to sea. 

If there is a tide, the ship is put on that tack by which she can stem it. Thus if the tide runs from 
east, and the wind is at S. S. E. it is plain by the compass, Fig. 520, that she must be got on the star¬ 
board tack; when being close hauled, like Fig. 521, she just stems it; whereas, were she on the larboard 
tack, like Fig. 522, she would only lie S. W. as per compass; so that she would drive out again with 
the tide, her course being only four points from west, its absolute direction. 

• 

When a ship therefore intends to anchor, and stems the tide, like Fig. 521, she gets under an easy 
sail, taking in the top-gallant sails and courses, &c. according to the strength of the wind; and when 
near enough (having streamed the buoy, &c. as before), clews up the top-sails, the tide then checking 
her way, she lets go the anchor, When she has sufficient cable, and the proper service in the hawse, 
she rides by the tide with the wind almost across. How to shear will be mentioned when treating on 
the single anchor. 

Thus in coming to an anchor, the ship’s head must be always put to the stream. If it comes from lee¬ 
ward, there is nothing to do but to shorten the sail, and when the top-sails are clewed up, let go the an¬ 
chor: if from windward, she must be luffed up, hauling out the mizen, and when she meets the stream, 
and her headway is stopped, the anchor is let go. 


25 




98 


ANCHORING-DRIFTING. 


If the wind is large, or right aft, like Fig. 522, and the stream from windward, or what is called a lee¬ 
ward tide., then all the sails are handed, except the fore top-sail, and the cable is bitted : the ship is hauled 
up sooner, the helm put a-lee, the fore top-sail clewed up, the mizen hauled out, the mizen stay-sail 
sheet aft, to bring her to the wind, like Fig. 523; and when she comes head to wind, like Fig. 524, she 
loses her headway, at which time the anchor is let go, and according to the strength of the wind and 
tide, a long scope of cable is veered out. The mizen and mizen stay-sails are taken in. 

When the wind is right out of a river, and the ship is to go up, she waits till there is water enough, 
and the flood sufficiently strong to drive by against the wind: she then drifts in, either stern foremost, or 
broadside to it, having sufficient sail set to determine the rate of driving. When there is room enough, 
the first of these is preferred, as she will answer her helm by the tide acting against the sides of the rud¬ 
der, as if she were going a-head. 

The ship, Fig. 525, is driving with the tide setting to the southward, against the wind, which is on 
the quarter: this is called a weather tide. Proportioning her sail according to the strength of it, she some¬ 
times sets her top-gallant sails, by which she remains stationary, and sometimes as occasion may require 
lets fall the fore-sail, by which she shoots a little a-head; so that she is under every command that can 
be wished; but in drifting to the southward, when she gets to a certain depth of water, (which is found by 
the hand lead (see page 12 ), or some particular object , by the bearing of which it is known; or by two marks, such 
as the church and perch in the Figure, being in one), in order to avoid a rock or shoal (d) a-stern, the helm is put 
down to leeward or a-starboard, the mizen hauled out, the yards braced up, and she stands over towards 
the westward, like Fig. 526. 


When she was driving stern foremost, like Fig. 525, her head was north, with the wind at S. W. on 
the larboard quarter, as per compass, Fig. 527; and now she is hauled close to the wind, like Fig. 526, 
her head is W. N.W., so that as she drifts with the tide to the southward, she is reaching across it to the 
weather shore. 

Thus she may proceed driving with her broadside to windward, and when sile wants to get over to the 
weather shore, and shoot quicker a-head in case of danger, she has only to drop the courses, and set top¬ 
gallant sails, &c.: and if she finds it necessary to stand over to the eastward, she may either stay or 
box-haul round on the other tack, when she will lie S. S. E. (see compass), close hauled on the starboard 

tack. 

When it is wished to drive with the broadside exposed to the tide, and not to advance a-head, the 
main and mizen top-sails are laid a-back, and the fore top-sail kept shivering or a-back, as occasion may 
require; but as her falling oft' will be very rapid, (on account of the rake forward, as mentioned in the 
next page, except the ship is by the head and deep laden), the fore top-sail is seldom laid a-back, but 
k i shivering, because its power is very great to pay the ship’s head off'. 






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99 


DRIFTING. 

—— 


This falling off is caused l^ the rake forward, where she does not meet with that resistance which 
she finds abaft. The tide also acts powerfully against her lee side ; and it has so much more effect abaft 
than forward, as to throw her stern up in the wind, which gives every effort to the fore top-sail to pay 
her head off, and make her recede from it. 


Thus by Fig. 528, if the tide run in the direction of the arrows to the southward, as per compass, Fig. 
530, against the starboard side of the ship, it will have more effect against the stern post, which is nearly 
perpendicular, and the run (a), than it can have forward against the gripe (b) and cut-water (c): on 
the contrary, the after sails, which should force her stern to leeward, or to the northward, and keep her 
head to the wind, are resisted by the tide; but the fore top-sail (if it were a-back) would pay her head 
off to leeward, on account of the stem being so little acted on, in proportion by the stream. It is this 
continual falling off, which renders it difficult to give her sternway, because she brings the wind further 
aft by it, and gets headway till she comes to again. As she sometimes drives with the sails full, and 
sometimes a-back, this method of going up a river, or channel, is called backing and filling. 


When it is necessary to drive on the other tack, she is either wared, box-hauled, or put in stays. If 
the ship is light, one of the former methods is taken to bring her round. If she is to ware : then when 
she falls off by the sternway to the northward, the mizen is hauled up, the mizen stay-sail down, like 
Fig. 529, the main and mizen top-sails shivered by the starboard braces, the fore top-sail braced sharp 
about with the same, the jib and fore top-mast stay-sail hoisted, and the helm put a-weather or to port: 
when she proceeds gathering in the braces, as in waring, page 79. 


If she is box-hauled, the ship, Fig. 528, has nothing to do but to haul up the mizen and down the 
mizen stay-sail, brace sharp a-back the fore top-sail, and if necessary^ hoist the jib and fore top-mast stay¬ 
sail, hauling aft the weather sheets, and then to proceed as in box-hauling (see page 93); but ships which 
are deeply laden will generally stay: therefore, when the ship, Fig. 528, is to be put in stays, the yards 
are all braced about full, and the after ones trimmed sharp, like Fig. 531 ; and when she has sufficient 
way the helm is put down to leeward. If it is thought necessary to make a stern board when she has 
passed the direction of the wind and brought it on the weather bow, like Fig 532, the helm and yards 
are kept as they were, the former being before a-lee (or a-starboard ), is now a-weather; and the sails 
beinw all a-back, will send her a-stern towards the western shore, the water assisting the after or star¬ 
board side of the rudder, sends her stern to the northward, and prevents her head from immediately falling 
off. If necessary, she drops the mainsail, which gives her more powerful sternway, as in the figure. 
When she falls off, the fore top-sail must be shivered as before; and when she gets headway, the helm 
is put a-lee, or to port. She will then drift to the southward with the sails a-back as before, her head 
to the eastern shore. 


In very rapid tides, as in the river Garonne, in France, where there are a number of ships crowded to¬ 
gether, it would not be possible to manage a ship by backing and filling; it is therefore the custom to 
club the ship, which is driving with the anchor up and down, heaving in, or veering away the cable as the 
water shoals, or deepens, or as it is wanted to drift or bring up. 


Merchant ships, which at sea carry their main braces aft, have often working braces fixed to the 
yards, to lead forward when coming into a tide-way. A tail-block is made fast to each yard-arm, a 
temporary brace reeved through it, and carried forward to the after fore shrouds: the after braces are 
over-hauled sufficiently to let the yards work, and hang (by the bights) in beckets made fast to the main 
top-mast back-stays. 




100 


SINGLE ANCHOR. 

-&&&— 

It may be easily conceived that a ship riding at anchor, like Fig. 533, with the tide running 
from the South, must consequently be to the northward of her anchor, and that at the change of the tide, 
she must be swung or got round to the southward of it, when the tide will run from the north : and that 
if the cable be taught, (which it must be) she will in this swing describe a semi-circle, (a b, or a c), of 
which it will be the radius. The cable is kept on the stretch to avoid fouling the anchor, which is done 
by its getting, when slack, round the upper fluke (b), Fig. 534, or the stock (a), and sometimes round, 
both, in which case she is in no security. Great caution and skill must be therefore used to avoid this 
disaster: and it is reckoned a particular disgrace, in the English coasting trade, to heave up an anchor 
thus entangled. 

Suppose a ship is riding leeward tide, that is, with the wind and tide both a-head: she has then the 
united power of the tide against her body under water, and of the wind against her masts and yards, 
bearing upon the cable. Therefore, if the wind is strong, she will in this case require a greater scope of 
cable than in any other. 

Now the cable is veered away, because the anchor, lying in the ground in the position described by 
Fig. 534, the lower arm (c) having deep hold with its fluke in the bottom, and the stock (a) lying 
transversely upon it, it is brought into a more horizontal stale, and the strain being placed in that line 
of direction, tends the more to fix the lower fluke in the ground. Whereas, when a shorter scope is out, 
the ship is nearer to her anchor; the angle between the cable and the surface of the bottom is rendered 
more obtuse, the former pointing in the prolongation of the dotted line (e). The strain being imparted 
to it in that line, its effort is to lift the anchor upwards, and of course to make it insecure to ride by, 
turning the lower fluke from its holding direction : so that with this combined force of wind and tide 
against the anchor, it is necessary to veer away to the long or leeward service. 

When it is low water (supposing the ebb to be the leeward tide), the ship must of course be got to 
the southward or windward of her anchor, that she may ride with her head to the flood. Now if she were 
left to herself, she would naturally swing to windward when the flood began to set to the southward ; 
but then she would probably go over her anchor, and the cable lying slack on the ground, would have 
its bight dragged round the stock and fluke; the consequence of which would be, that it would no longer 
hold her, and she would drive at the mercy of the tide: and if she did not by chance foul her anchor, 
the great scope of cable being dragged after her over foul ground, &c. would infallibly so cut and chafe 
it, as to render it incapable of bearing sufficient strain to ride by. It is therefore evidently of the ut¬ 
most consequence to keep a clear anchor, and also in swinging from one side to the other, to have the 
cable so taught that it may not drag on the bottom. 









































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101 


TENDING TO WINDWARD. 

—©QO— 


The ship, Fig. 533, in the former page, is riding leeward tide, the wind at South and the ebb setting 
to the northward; and she has, on account of their united strength (ifit blows fresh), a long scope of 
cable out, the yards being braced sharp up, to point them to the wind as much as possible. When the 
tide begins to slacken the cable is hove in to the windward service, that there may not be such a length 
to drag when tending to windward: and when the weather tide is set, the wind being then aft, the short 
service is sufficient to ride by. 

When the flood begins to set from the northward it will naturally cant her stern so much round as to 
bring the wind, which is at South, either on the starboard or larboard bow : in this case, the jib and fore 
top-mast stay-sail are set (in general the latter is sufficient), for the purpose of shooting her ahead, either 
to the eastward or westward, that the cable may be kept taught; but as there are particular reasons why 
a ship should be shot on one side in preference to the other, it will be necessary to cast her head so that 
she may be certain to go the right way: for instance, if the vessel has a cut-water, it should be consid¬ 
ered that the cable, when riding to windward, lies a good deal athwart the tide by the sheer (as may be 
seen by Fig. 537), when it will have a constant tremulous motion up and down ; so that to avoid the 
damage which may be done by the friction, she must be shot over to the eastward or westward, that she 
may lie the whole weather tide with the cable out of that hawse-hole which is on the same side with 
the buoy. 

Now if the ship, Fig. 534, is riding by the larboard cable, it will be most eligible to cast her on the 
starboard tack, which will be with her head to the eastward; because, when she arrives at the situation 
of Fig. 537, she will have the cable clear of the cut-water, and in that position she will lie during the 
whole iveuther tide. 

To cast the ship to the eastward ; as soon as the lee-tide slacks, the helm is put a-starboard, which 
will give her a sheer so as to bring the wind on the starboard bow: the head yards are laid a-back with 
the starboard braces, the jib and lore top-mast stay-sail hoisted, like Fig. 534, with the starboard sheets 
aft; and the sprit-sail yard may be topped up a-back with the starboard brace.—When the flood begins 
to set from the northward, the helm is put a-port, that the water acting against the larboard or after side 
of the rudder may send her stern to starboard , of course assist the jib and fore top-mast stay-sail to pay 
her head off to port. When she is cast with her head to the eastward, she must then be set a-head, like 
Fig. 535, the head yards being filled by the larboard braces, the helm put a-weather or to starboard , and 
the lee jib and fore top-mast stay-sail sheets, hauled aft, by which means she will keep the cable taught, 
as represented by the dotted line from the buoy. 

Whilst she is stretching over to the eastward, she is at the same time driving broadside to windward 
(or to the southward), and she will continue in that position till the tide, acting upon her lee side, sends 
her stern over the cable, bringing the buoy to bear on the larboard quarter, like Fig. 536, when the helm 
is put a-lee (to port), the head yards braced to by the starboard braces, and the jib and fore top-mast 
stay-sail hauled down, as in the figure; because they are of no further use to keep the cable taught.* 
When she was to leeward of it, like Fig. 535, they acted immediately against it; but now that she has 
gone over it, they would only help to slacken it again, and break her sheer, which will be mentioned in 
page 103. Therefore, to keep the cable taught, her head must be sheered from it, the helm being a-lee, 
the after yards full, and the head ones pointed to the wind: thus her head will endeavor to approach the 
wind by the helm; but being checked by the cable, she keeps it taught. 

Now the cable checking her on one side, and the helm on the other, she is kept in that position till she 
falls right to windward of her anchor, when the tide being set, she approaches the stream, and will ride 
with a sheer, like Fig. 537, by a check of the lee helm, the whole weather tide: the helm and yards re¬ 
maining as last mentioned. 

♦If it blows fresh, the ship will shoot a-head, and bring the buoy on the lee or larboard quarter while to leeward of her 
anchor, by the tide acting on her lee side, as before, and sending her stern over the cable—the helm and yards are used as 
above. ’ She will thus fall to windward, on her proper sheer. 

26 





102 


TENDING TO LEEWARD. 

—-©©©— 

The helm and yards are kept in this position the whole windward tide, for this reason : if the helm 
were put a-midships, and the ship riding with the anchor right a-head, she would not lie steadily, but be 
always sheering first on one side then on the other, the wind in any sudden squall shooting her a-head 
so as to slacken the cable, and the tide on the lull bringing it taught again with a violent jerk : but the 
helm being put o.-lee , the offer yards filled, and the head ones pointed to the wind, she lies as it were be¬ 
tween the wind and the tide, the helm biasing one way and the cable the other. The helm is only put 
sufficiently to leeward to keep her on a proper sheer. 


When the windward tide slacks, the cable is kept taught by the same sheer which she has rode with 
the whole weather tide, the yards being braced as above mentioned. The tide slackening, the wind will 
cause her to forge a-head to the northward, till she comes end on over the cable, like Fig. 538. In this 
situation, great attention will be required, as ships riding in this position often break their sheer against 
the helm, as will be mentioned in the next page; but for the present let it be supposed that she is tend¬ 
ing without any accident of this kind occurring : therefore, when she is in the station of Fig. 538, end on, 
the helm and after yards not having the cable to counteract them to leeicard as before, naturally bring 
her head more round to the eastward, by which her stern goes over the cable, and brings the buoy on 
the starboard quarter, like Fig. 539.— (It is often necessary in light winds, when she brings the buoy on the 
weather quarter, like Fig. 539, to set sail, the yards not being sufficient to set her a-head: when this is the case , 
and the fore top-mast stay-sa.il is hoisted, the mizen staysail must be also run up ; because if theformer were set alone , 
its power lying all forward, and the cable forming too small an angle with the ship to act against it, would pay 
her head off, which the latter sail will prevent. As soon as she brings the wind abaft the beam, like Fig. 540, 
the mizen staysail must be hauled down, proceeding as before. See next page, Fig. 543).—When this is the 
case, the head yards must be braced about to fill them, as in the figure, and the helm put a-starboard or 
a-weather, because the cable must now be brought taught by sheering her head from it to leeward: the 
yards being all full, send her a-head, and she will keep coming to the eastward by the stern flying off. 
When she brings the wind a little abaft the beam, like Fig. 540, the fore top-mast stay-sail (and if ne¬ 
cessary the jib) must be hoisted, in which situation she will lie, till according to the power of the wind by 
the weather tide ceasing, she fall wind-rode, or the lee tide has sufficient strength to send her quite to 
leeward, and forcing her stern to the northward, brings her head to wind tide: the jib and the fore top¬ 
mast stay-sail will then shake, when they must be hauled down, and she will ride leeward tide as before, 
like Fig. 533, page 100. 


N. B. If the fore top-mast stay-sail were not set when the wind comes abaft the beam, like Fig. 540, the cable 
would draw her head to wind, and being slackened, she would drag the bight of it over the ground, till pressed 
a-stream of her anchor. 


As she is now riding leeward tide, if it blows fresh, a sufficient scope of cable is veered out, and the 
yards pointed to the wind : if it increases, the top-gallant yards are got down, and the masts struck or 
got down on deck; and having the top-sails close reefed previously to their being furled, she is pre¬ 
pared for accidents. 










































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103 


BREAKING THE SHEER. 

— 

Let it be supposed that the ship has forged a-head on the slack of the weather tide (as shown in the 
former page by Fig. 53S), having the helm a-lee, the after yards full, and the head ones pointed to the 
wind, being right end on over the cable; and that by the power of the tide, lulling of the wind, or neglect, 
she breaks her sheer against the helm, bringing the wind on the larboard quarter, like Fig. 541, and is 
coming with her head to the westward. Then to pay her head off again, the fore top-mast stay-sail must 
be hoisted, as in the Figure; the helm which was a-lee will be now a-wcather the right way, the after 
yards which were full on the other tack, are now pointed to the wind, and the fore ones which were in 
the latter position are now full: so that there is every power given to ware her round, and bring the 
buoy on the quarter, when she must be managed as before. 

If in shooting a-head she breaks her sheer, and gets so far over as Fig. 542, then, if the wind should 
lull so as to make it doubtful that she would recover, there would be danger of the tide (which is yet run¬ 
ning from the northward) driving her with a slack cable over her anchor: in this case the after yards 
must be filled, and the jib hoisted (it may be also necessary to hoist the mizen stay-sail), to shoot her 
over to the westward with a taught cable, in which position she may remain till the tide is done, and she 
falls wind-rode. If she falls to windward again, the contrary helm and braces must be used to those 
which were employed when she was to the eastward. When a ship falls to windward the contrary way to 
which she has tended the tide before , there is danger of the anchor not having turned in the ground ; it ought there¬ 
fore to be looked at the first opportunity , as the cable may have got foul. 

Ships often break their sheer in tending to leeward t after the buoy is brought on the weather quarter, 
the helm a-weather, and all the yards full, like Fig. 543. This is owing to hoisting the fore top-mast 
stay-sail before the wind comes on the beam, when she falls off suddenly, before the mizen stay-sail can 
be set to catch her: therefore, whenever the sheer is likely to be broken by the fore top-mast stay-sail 
paying her head off, the mizen stay-sail is set, and the weather helm eased; and when the wind comes 
near the beam it is hauled down again, proceeding as in the former page. 

When the ship is riding leeward tide, if the wind abate considerably, the cable must be shortened in, 
that the bight may not rub on the ground; but if it is quite calm at slack water, then she must hove 
a-peak, because she cannot be tended with a taught cable. When this is the case, particularly if there 
is any swell,, a piece of old canvas should be wrapped round the cable by way of service; for, though the 
time is short that she will remain in that state, yet the ship being right over her anchor, will jump so 
suddenly at times as to damage it materially, if this precaution is not taken. When the ship is hove 
a-peak, the anchor may as well be looked at; for though it is certain that it has not been fouled, from 
having always tended with a taught cable, yet the worming may be damaged close to the anchor: and 
if there is no chain to the buoy rope (mentioned page 68), that may also have been materially injured. 




104 


THE WIND CHANGED THREE POINTS. 

—©Q©— 

Let it now be supposed, that the wind, which was at South, is come round three points to the east¬ 
ward, or S. E. by S.: the ship will then ride more athwart, bringing the buoy almost on the beam, and 
the cable in that situation will lift up and down with a tremulous motion; therefore if it is out of the 
weather hawse-hole, care must be taken that the heckling is good. 

The ship riding in this situation, must be well watched at slack water; because this shift of wind 
will cause a S. E. swell, and if she is not carefully attended to, she may be driven over the buoy: on this 
account, it is often necessary to set the mizen, mizen stay-sail and mizen top-sail, like Fig. 544, to send 
her a-head, and keep her from breaking her sheer against the helm. When the buoy comes on the wea¬ 
ther quarter (as mentioned before in tending to leeward, page 102, Fig. 539), these sails must be taken in, the 
helm put a-weather, and the head yards filled, proceeding as there explained. She will then ride leeward 
tide, with the wind three points on the larboard bow; and when the tide is set, she may have a small 
check of the starboard helm. 

At slack water she will fall wind-rode, with her head towards the weather shore, like Fig. 545. And 
as in tending to windward before, she was sent to the eastward, she may be shot that way again, with the 
jib, fore top-mast stay-sail, and if necessary, the mizen stay-sail. For the windward tide setting to the 
southward, by her lying rather athwart like the Figure, will cant her stern more the same way, and of 
course cast her with her head more to the weather shore: therefore, the jib and fore top-mast stay-sail 
being set with the helm a-weather or a-starboard, she will shoot over to the eastward, driving to windward, 
till she brings the buoy on the larboard quarter, when she must be managed as before shown in tending 
to windward. (See page 101, Fig. 536). 

THE WIND RIGHT ACROSS THE TIDE. 

When the wind is right across the tide, she may be either bached round, or sheered to leeward. 

TO BACK THE SHIP. 

Suppose the wind shifts round to due east; the ship, Fig. 546, being sheered to windward by a check 
of the lee helm, at slack water braces her yards a-back, sheets home the mizen top-sail, hoists it, and 
lays it a-back also.—She thus keeps the cable taught, backing round to the westward, and when she ar¬ 
rives at the situation of the ship, Fig. 547 (she will then have the wind right a-head), the yards are braced 
about with the contrary braces, and the helm changed: thus she will remain till the tide drives her to 
the southward. When the tide is set from the northward, the mizen top-sail may be clewed up, and she 
will ride sheered to windward, with a check of the lee helm, like Fig. 548. 















































































105 


THE WIND RIGHT ACROSS THE TIDE—MOORING. 

—Q©©— 

SHEERING TO LEEWARD. 

The ship, Fig. 549, having the wind at East as before, is sheered to leeward with the helm a-weather: 
at slack water she will fall wind-rode, in the direction of the East and West line, Fig. 550, and when the 
tide from the northward casts her stern so much to the southward as to bring the wind on the starboard 
bow, like Fig. 551, the fore top-mast stay-sail is hoisted with the sheet to windward, to keep her steady 
and the cable taught till the tide is set; it is then hauled down. Thus she swings but over a small part 
of a circle each tide. It would be endless to relate the disputes which have arisen on the different 
methods of sheering a ship with the wind right across the tide; men of great experience having given 
their decided opinions on each side. 


MOORING. 

A ship is said to be moored when she is secured by more than one anchor and cable or chain in different 
directions. Suppose the ship, Fig. 552, to have anchored in good ground, where she can moor, and that 
she is riding by the starboard anchor (b), on which she has two or more cables spliced together: the tide 
setting from the eastward, she veers away two cables, and being at the station (a), lets go the larboard 
anchor: she then heaves in one cable of the starboard anchor (b), with enough of the mooring service of 
the other to freshen the hawse with, veering away at the same time upon the larboard cable, the anchor of 
which w r as dropped at (a). She has then one anchor to the ebb, and another to the flood. In veering 
away upon the starboard cable to drop the larboard anchor, if the tide is not strong, she may be assisted 
by the mizen top-sail hoisted a-back, as in the Figure, if the wind is favorable; but if the wind is strong, 
or the tide rapid, the cable must be veered bitted, or it would run out too fast. 


[Ships-of-war, when moored to lay any length of time, have bmm rings with a swivel, into which all 
the cables are shackled. By this plan the hawse never fouls.— Am. Ed .] (See Fig. 16, plate 112). 



27 




106 


KEEPING A CLEAR HAWSE. 

—QO©— 

With the anchors laid as last mentioned, she is said to be moored with a clear or open hawse to the 
northward; because if she swings with her stern to the south, as described by Fig. 553, each anchor 
will lie on that side where its cable enters the hawse-hole; but if she swings with her stern to the north¬ 
ward, like Fig. 554, then the cables will lie across each other, and this is called a foul hawse . If she 
comes several times the same way, they will be twisted, so as to render it impossible to veer away either 
cable in a case of emergency. 


If the ship, Fig. 555, be riding by the starboard cable, with the wind and tide of flood both from the 
east; then, to avoid a foul hawse , she must, as before observed, at slack water, swing with her stern to the 
southward, to ride by the larboard one with the ebb from the West. Therefore, in order to send her stem 
the right way, the jib and fore top-mast stay-sail must be hoisted, with the starboard sheets aft, (the jib 
sheet may be taken under the sprit-sail yard-arm , the yard being topped up with the starboard brace , which will guy 
it out and help to cast her), the mizen top-sail braced sharp up with the larboard brace (if it leads aft), like 
the Figure, and the helm put a-starboard. The remains of the flood from the East acting against the lar¬ 
board side of the rudder, and the mizen top-sail being a-back, will help to send her stern to the south¬ 
ward, and the jib and foie lop-mast sta^-sail lo cast her head to the northward. The wind being at East, 
she may not begin to cast till the ebb sets from the West: in which case the helm must be put a-port, that 
the tide against the larboard or after side of the rudder, may help her stern to the southward, as before. 
As soon as she begins to tend, the mizen tup-sail must be taken in, otherwise it will help to throw her 
stern back again. 




V 


On the slack of the ebb, which sets from the West, with the wind the same way, the ship, Fig. 556, 
to swing with her stern to the southward, must put her helm a-port, and hoist the mizen top-sail, haul¬ 
ing in a little of the larboard brace^^e wind being at East, will act on this sail to send her stern to the 
southward. If the driver is at hand, it may be hoisted; or, if the ship carries a boom mizen, the larboard 
guy may be hauled forward, which will greatly assist her. 


If the wind is at South, the ship, Fig. 557, riding by the starboard cable, at slack water, will una¬ 
voidably swing with her stern to the North, consequently cross the cables, like Fig. 558, the starboard 
cable being over the larboard one, in which situation, they will lie during the ebb; but at the next slack 
water, when she swings again with her stern to the northward, which the ship, Fig. 559, must do, she 
will take the cross out again, like Fig. 560, and ride with the flood by the starboard cable, like Fig. 557, 
with a clear hawse. 


If the wind were at North, the ships, Fig. 557 and 559, would naturally swing at each slack water 
with their sterns to the southward, and keep the hawse clear. Care must be taken, that the two cables 
the ship is moored by, are not too taught hove in; otherwise she will be girted so as to prevent her swing¬ 
ing well at slack water, and they may be damaged by the strain and friction against the cut-water. 







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107 


CLEARING THE HAWSE. 

—ao©— 

As the wind is liable to shift continually, she must be attended to every slack water, hoisting the jib 
and fore top-mast stay-sail, with the sheets to windward or otherwise, and the mizen top-sail a-back or full, 
as occasion may require. 

Ships are moored with an open hawse to that quarter from whence the most violent wind is to be 
expected: and it is of the greatest consequence to keep the hawse clear; for should it blow hard when 
foul, the cables cannot be veered away for a greater scope to ride by. When the ship cannot be man¬ 
aged by the helm and sails, in light winds a kedge anchor and hawser must be carried out, and she may 
be hove to it by the capstern, the hawser being led in through one of the quarter ports; if there is no cap- 
stern, it may be taken through a warping block, and led to the windlass. 


When one cable lies over another, it is called a CROSS, Fig. 561. When it makes another cross, 
Fig. 562, it is called an ELBOW: when a third, Fig. 563, it is called a ROUND TURN; and if it again 
cross, Fig. 564, a ROUND TURN and an ELBOW. 

To clear the hawse when foul, a block (a), Fig. 565, is lashed round the bowsprit, through which a 
hawser or tow-line is reeved, having a large hook called a fish hook (b) bent to its end. A strong lash¬ 
ing is passed round both cables below the turns. The fish hook is placed under the larboard or riding 
cable, before the lashing, which is hove well up by the hawser. The end of the larboard lore top bow^- 
line (d) is taken through the starboard hawse-hole, being passed over and under the cables, (because the 
starboard cable , which is the clearing one , is the undtrmost), and bent to the starboard cable within board, 
about two or three fathoms. The starboard fore-top bow-line (e) must be then over-hauled, led through 
the hawse-hole on its own side, made fast to the end of the cable, and stopped to it with spun-yarn in 
different places: a rope within board, called a HAWSE ROPE, is also made fast to the end of the cable. 


The starboard fore-top bow-line (e) is then hauled upon (the stops being cut as they come out of the 
hawse-hole), and as the bight (g) comes out, Fig. 566, it is triced up by the larboard bow-line (d), which 
is belayed. The hawse-rope is then made fust, the starboard bow-line cast off, taken over and under the 
cables (as the larboard one was), and again made fast near the end. The hawse-rope is let go,^ the 
starboard bow-line (e) being now bowsed upon, hauls the end of the clearing cable over the other. 1 he 
hawse-rope (h) being shifted over the cables, is taken into the hawse-hole again, the cable hauled in by 
it (the bow-lines being let go and cast off'), and bitted. When there is more cable than can be hauled 
out in one bight (g), it must be hung by a slip rope to the bowsprit, the bow-line (d) cast off, and sent in 
for another bight, proceeding as befbre. If it blows fresh, it will not be safe to trust to the lashing alone; 
but a hawser should be made fast to the starboard or clearing cable, with a MIDSHIPMAN’S HITCH 
(see page 9) below the lashing or turns. 


This precaution of clearing hawse is too much neglected; by which, if nothing worse happens, great 
injury is done to the cables. It is not uncommon to see large ships with two round turns in the hawse: 
a disgusting sight to an active seaman. 




108 


BACKING AN ANCHOR. 

—Q©©— 

When a ship is obliged to anchor in a road where the water is deep, the ground bad for holding, and 
a lee shore, it has been often recommended to let go one of the bowers (a), Fig. 567, veering away a good 
scope, and stoppering the cable: then to let go the other bower, and veer away nearly the whole of the 
cable (a) till the other checks her. A stout hawser (b) must be next bent to the cable with a midship¬ 
man’s hitch (see page 9), and the end seized down to it: the other end of the hawser being taken into the 
hawse-hole (c), carried to the windlass or bitts, and there made fast. The end of the starboard cable is 
then to be hauled out of the hawse-hole, and taken with a running clinch round the larboard cable (d): 
after this, the stopper (b) must be cut, the clinch running by the ship’s dragging; and when she has 
driven so as to bring it down to the ring of the larboard anchor, the larboard cable is veered away its 
proper scope, when she will ride with one anchor a-head of the other, like Fig. 568. 


The difficulty of this method seems nearly insurmountable; for when it blows so hard as to make 
something of this nature necessary, there is generally a heavy sea running, and the ship may pitch so 
violently as to render it almost impracticable (as it must be done without board) to clinch one cable round 
the other. The stopper (b), from the great strain on it, may not hold. From the time which it would 
take to accomplish this, the ship might drive ashore before it could be effected. 


A small check a-head of the anchor, will prevent its coming home: therefore when there is a lee shore, 
and plenty of room to veer away a long scope, the stream cable, or even a stout hawser, should be got 
upon deck, and coiled upon a kind of platform made of spars on the fore-castle, to keep it clear of timber 
heads, &c. The under end may be taken round the bows, and bent to one of the bower anchors, and the 
upper one to the stream or kedge on the opposite side, letting go the latter, when the ship is hove up in 
the wind, and the former, when the last fake of the hawser is clear; she will thus ride as before, the small 
anchor backing the large one. 


If the ship is off a lee shore, and there is no room to veer away a length of cable, then recourse is had 
to letting go all the anchors, that she may be secured by their united power: for which purpose, the 
square sails are handed, like Fig. 569, and she keeps her way under the stay-sails: the anchors are let 
go, beginning with the weather one (e), then the next to it (f), after it, the foremost one on the starboard 
side, &c. till the whole are gone. The stay-sails are hauled down, and she rides like Fig. 570, having 
all the anchors a-head, as in the Figure. 









































' • 





















































109 


BITTS, NIPPERS, MESSENGER, &c. 


The BITTS, Fig. 571, are composed of two strong upright pieces of timber, firmly secured to the 
beams, and have a stout cross-piece (a) bolted to them, and are sheathed with stout iron. They are used 
for receiving a turn of the cable, ar.d bearing a great portion of the strain upon the cable which the ship 
rides by, together with the stoppers. The larboard cable (b) being stoppered betore the bilts, has its 
bight put over the bitt-head (c), against the sun; the starboard cable (d) has its bight thrown over the 
bitt-head the reverse way, or with the sun. 


The STOPPERS (e) are reeved through strong bolts in the deck, placed over a large thimble, and 
turned in with a throat and round seizing. (See page 9). A stopper knot (see page 6) is clapped on the 
end of each, and a laniard being spliced round under the knot, is passed round the cable and stopper, 
and the end stopped. 


RING ROPES are either double or single: the latter are preferred, because the turns are easily 
passed. When they are double, Fig. 572, the bight is put through the ring, and the ends are reeved 
through the bight: when single, an eye is spliced in one end, put through the ring, and the end is reeved 
through the eye. These are used as stoppers, and to check the cable from running out, for which pur¬ 
pose, when veering away, turns (f), Fig. 573, are taken slack through the ring and over the cable: th© 
worming (g) of the end is also taken slack round the cable, the bights of these are held up that they may 
be no impediment to the cable’s running out; but when it is to be checked, the worming (g) is hauled 
taught round the cable, which in running out, draws the turns (f) also taught, and is jammed to the ring 
by them. 


The MESSENGER (h), Fig. 574, is a cablet of sufficient length to go round the capstern (1), and to 
pass slack round the rollers forward; it has an eye (i) spliced in each end, which eyes are secured to¬ 
gether by a lashing, it is passed in the Figure lor heaving in the larboard cable (k): the upper part, 
round the capstern, is held on by some hands at (m). When the starboard cable is to be hove in, the lash¬ 
ing is cast off, the messenger is passed the contrary way round the capstern, the heaving part on the 
starboard side being then underneath the turns, and the eyes are lashed together as before. 


The NIPPERS are passed as follows: when there is no great strain on the cable, as in light winds 
and little tide, a few turns (n), Fig. 575, are taken round the cable and messenger, the end (o) is wormed 
round the messenger, and the end (p) round the cable.—These are clapped on in the manger, and the ends 
of the nippers are^held by boys, who walk aft with them: when they approach the main hatchway, the 
nippers are taken off. If the strain be too powerful for this method to hold, round turns (q), Fig. 576, 
are taken alternately round the messenger and the cable, and the ends wormed as before.—When the 
strain is very violent, sand is thrown over the nipper and cable, and the former being middled, Fig. 577, 
the turns are taken like racking the two parts of a laniard, passing a round turn and a racking turn alter¬ 
nately round both the cable and messenger. Thus the turns from the middle (r) aft, are passed over and 
under; from (r) forward, under and over , the end (s) being wormed round the messenger, and the end (t) 
round the cable forward. 


In merchant ships, where a windlass is used, the cable is held on by a jigger. The end of the jigger, 
Fig. 578, is reeved through a sheave (u) and knotted. The sheave being taken over and under the ca¬ 
ble, is placed abaft the standing part(v), which it jams when hauled taught to the cab e. One end of 
the fall is made fast to an eye-bolt, &c. aft, and the other is held on, either by hand, or taken to a crab on 

the quarter deck. gs 




no 


CASTING. 

—Q<©©— 

In getting under way, it should be considered how the ship is to cast; and whether it is more pru¬ 
dent to shoot a-head, back a-stern, or ware round to avoid other ships, shoals, &c. This may be regu¬ 
lated by the strength of the tide, bearing of the wind, the cable being to windward or to leeward, accord¬ 
ing to the cast: for all these are of consequence, and require to be well observed. 

The ship, Fig. 579, is riding leeward tide by the starboard cable: it will therefore be most eligible to 
cast her on the starboard tack, if there is no impediment from ships lying in the way; because the 
cable in weighing will be clear of the cut-water when she is sheered to bring the wind on the starboard 
bow. Heaving a stay peak, the cable must be stoppered, the three top-sails loosed, sheeted home, hoisted, 
and a sheer given with the starboard helm, to bring the wind on the starboard bow, (as mentioned in 
casting for a weather tide, page 101). The FORE TOP-SAIL is braced a-back with the starboard 
braces, and the MAIN and M1ZEN TOP-SAILS sharp up with the larboard ones (if they lead aft), as 
in the Figure. If it is intended to shoot her a-head, the anchor must be hove briskly up. When she has 
fallen off so as to fill the after sails (as in tacking), the head yards must be braced about and filled, like Fig. 
580: the helm* must be kept more or less a-starboard or a-weather , that she may not fly to; for she will 
not fall off while the anchor is under the bows, from the resistance it causes forward: on which account 
the JIB and FORE TOP-MAST STAY-SAIL are hoisted, as described by the Figure, to render the 
steerage easier. When the ship has shot far enough a-head, the jib and fore top-mast stay-sail may be 
hauled down, the ship brought to by putting the helm a-lee, the MAIN and M1ZEN TOP-SAILS hove 
a-back, and the FORE TOP-SAIL kept shivering, like Fig. 5SI: as she drives, the anchor may behove 
up, and if there is room, catted and fished. When the anchor is up she will fall off, and the FORE 
TOP-SAIL being filled and the helm righted, sail may be set according to circumstances. 

If at weighing the vessel must back a-stern when cast, to avoid running foul of another, then the 
MAIN and MIZEN TOP-SAILS must be braced a-back with the starboard braces, as the fore one was, 
like Fig. 5S2, and the MIZEN SHEET hauled aft; the helm is put a little a-starboard as before, to bring 
the wind on the starboard bow, and the cable hove briskly in; as soon as the anchor is out of the ground, 
she will get sternway , at which time the helm must be put hard a-starboard or a-weather to keep her to, 
by the after or starboard side of the rudder being pressed against the water, which forces her stern to 
leeward or to port. When she has made her stern-board far enough, the anchor may be got up with ease: 
the opportunity is then taken of her falling offi to fill and make sail, or ware round on the other tack, as 
occasion may require. 

If, after making the stern-board, or at weighing, the ship must ware short round , Fig. 5S3, the helm 
must be put a-lee or to port: ( that the after or larboard side of the rudder being pressed against the water by the 
sternway , may send her stern to starboard ), the FORE TOP-SAIL must be braced sharp a-back , the MAIN 
and MIZEN TOP-SAILS square a-back, and the JIB and FORE TOP-MAST STAY-SAIL set with 
the starboard or weather sheets aft; she will then ware sharp round on her heel, when she must proceed 
as mentioned in box-hauling, page 93. 


* If the ship (when the anchor is out of the ground) gets sternway, the helm must he still kept a-weather, to prevent her 
falling off too much. 















leu/nt fCDdlilcrr Sc . 









♦ 
















































































% 
























Ill 


GETTING UNDER WAY—ANCHORING. 


If there is a necessity for getting under way on a lee tide, with a fresh wind, it will require great ex¬ 
ertion at the capstern. 


If the flood is the windward tide, it is generally the practice to get under way at the last quarter of 
it, by which means the ship will not be to cast, the anchor will be up, catted and fished, and she will 
save the tide. 

At this time she will be in the position of the ship, Fig. 584, which is riding with a sheer of the port 
helm, as mentioned in riding windward tide, page 101, Fig. 537, the after yards full, and the head ones 
braced to with the starboard braces. The head yards are filled, the helm eased, and she falls towards 
her anchor, like Fig. 5S5. If the tide is strong and the wind light, the FORE TOP-SAIL may be hoisted 
to ease the capstern or windlass, when the cable is hove in; if the wind is rather more powerful, the 
FORE TOP-MAST STAY-SAIL will be sufficient, or the top-sails hanging loose in the brails. If it is 
so strong as to force the ship a-head, bringing the cable taught under the bows, it is seldom attempted to 
heave the anchor up with a windward tide; for in sheering towards her anchor, to slacken the cable that 
it may be hove in, she will bring up suddenly with such violence as to endanger her parting: in which 
case it is always judged most prudent to get under way when the tide first makes to windward, heaving 
in the slack of the cable, before she tends so as to bring the wind aft. 


When a ship comes to an anchor at the slack of the windward tide, she must be shot a-head with 
the JIB and FORE TOP-MAST STAY-SAIL, and if necessary, the MIZEN or MIZEN STAY-SAIL. 
Thus the ship, Fig. 586, being under the three top-sails, mizen, jib and fore top-mast stay-sail, intending 
to come to an anchor, takes in the three top-sails, lets go the anchor at (a), and shoots a-head with the 
fore and aft sails, veering out a sufficient scope of cable to tend with, like Fig. 5S7, bringing the buoy 
on the starboard or weather quarter; when she brings the wind abaft the beam by the mizen sending her 
stern to leeward, it is taken in, and she then proceeds as described in tending to leeward, page 102, or in 
breaking the sheer, page 103. 


When the wind is directly across the tide, the ship may be got under way at any time, as sail may 
be set to stem it. Coming to an anchor with the wind in this direction, there is nothing to do but to take 
in sail, and when the headway is done, let go the anchor, sheering either to windward or to leeward, as 
mentioned in pages 104 and 105. 




112 


CHAIN CABLES—WINDLASS—STOPPERS. 

— 

A 

Fig. 10 represents part of a chain cable bent to the anchor. These cables are now in general use. 

A stout shackle (c) is passed over the ring (e): and this ring is attached to the end of the shank 
(f) by the bolt (g), which is secured by the forelock (h). 

To every link of the chain a bar is placed across, to prevent them from being drawn together: and 
at every seventh fathom a shackle and swivel is placed. Thus it may be used as a mooring chain. 

This cable is used with either a windlass or a capstern.—When the former is carried, the part 
(i), Fig. 11, is entirely cased with iron: it rises gradually on each side: and on the starboard side it 
has projections (k) raised something in the manner of thumb cleats. These prevent the chain from 
riding, and always keep it in its place. 

An IRON ROLLER, like Fig. 12, is sometimes fixed before the hawse-hole where the chain-cable 
enters: and another of the same kind is fixed within board.—The cable abaft the windlass passes 
through an IRON STOPPER, Fig. 13: the horns (o) keep it from slipping out. It is held on by iron 
hooks like (L): these are from two to three feet in length. When necessary, the upper part, or lid of the 
stopper (p) is let down; when it will appear like Fig. 14. An iron bar or crow 7 , being put into the hol¬ 
low of a raised strap (m), it is pressed down: and this completely jams the chain. 

In merchant ships these stoppers are not now used ; the ordinary deck stoppers (e), Fig. 571, are pre¬ 
ferred, or the kind called devil’s claw, Fig. 573 (a). A round turn and a half is taken round the wind¬ 
lass, for the purpose of holding on better. 

Fig. 15 represents the ring-stopper now in use : it is of chain. The advantage of it over the old kind 
is, that the short end is let go, and there is no long part to fly or jam. 

/ 

The Table on the next page is compiled from various sources : the chains are heavier in proportion 
to the tonnage, and the weight of the anchor, than is generally used in American vessels. Those marked 
with a dagger (t) are the proportions used in the U. S. Navy. 







































































113 


HEMP AND CHAIN CABLES. 


—Q©©— 


A TABLE,* 


showing the comparative strength and weight of Hemp and Chain Cables. 


Size. 

Threads. 

Wei of! t. 

Equal to 
Chum. 

lbs. per 
Fathom. 

Proof. 

Weight 0 
Anchors 

Register 
T onnage 

Size. 

Threads. 

Weigh'. 

Equal to 
Cham 

lbs. per 
Fathom. 

Proof. 

Weight of 
Anchor. 

Register 

Tonnage. 

inches. 


cwt. 

qrs. 

lbs. 



tons. 

cwt. 


inches . 


cwt. 

qrs. 

lbs. 



tons. 

cwt . 


2 

27 

0 

3 

26 






141 

1098 

40 

1 

12 

1| 

116 

25 

28f 



30 

1 

1 

8 

5 

1 IS 

1 

* 



15" 

1 170 

43 

0 

l 


106 

33 

17 

360 

3 

54 

1 

3 

25 






151 

1251 

45 

3 

26 

11 

115 

36 

184 

400 


72 

2 

2 

16 


8 

ii 



16" 

1332 

48 

3 

24 


125 

40 

20' 

450 

4 

99 

3 

1 

6 


11 

21 



161 

1413 

51 

3 

21 






4* 

108 

3 

3 

24 


14 

31 

2 

20 

17 

1503 

55 

1 

0 

If 

162 

37 

38+ 


5 

135 

4 

3 

23 






174 

1593 

58 

2 

6 


145 

48 

25 

550 

5* 

162 

5 

3 

22 


18 

41 

21 

30 

18 

1683 

61 

3 

13 

1? 





6 

189 

6 

3 

21 






184 

1782 

65 

2 

1 


170 

56 

30 

700 

65 

210 

7 

3 

21 


24 

6 

3 

40 

19 

1881 

69 

0 

17 

14 

210 

45 

50f 


7 

252 

9 

1 

1 


28 

n 

34 

50 

194 

1980 

72 

3 

4 






n 

288 

10 

2 

9 






■20 

2088 

76 

3 

1 


195 

64 

37 

850 

8 

333 

12 

0 

26 

i 

32 

9 

4 

60 

20.4 

2187 

60 

1 

16 

1 u 

226 

49 

70 f 


Si 

378 

13 

3 

15 


38 

11 

41 

75 

21 

2295 

84 

1 

14 

2 





9 

423 

15 

2 

25 






211 

2403 

88 

1 

10 






9£ 

408 

17 

0 

22 

7 

? 

44 

13 

51 

95 

22 

2520 

92 

2 

16 

2 

230 

72 

45 

1000 

10 

522 

19 

0 

21 

1 

50 

15 


120 

22! 

2646 

97 

1 

3 






10£ 

570 

21 

0 

19 

1 





23 

2763 

101 

2 

8 

2* 

270 

60 

95f 


11 

630 

23 

0 

18 


56 

19 

8 


231 

28s0 

105 

3 

14 






1 H 

684 

25 

0 

15 

n 

63 

19 

91 

180 

24 

3006 

110 

d 

1 

2| 





12 

747 

27 

1 

23 


71 

24 

11' 

210 

241 

3132 

115 

0 

16 






12* 

810 

29 

3 

3 






25 

3258 

119 

3 

2 

24 





13 

882 

32 

1 

19 


79 

24 

124 

240 

254 

3393 

124 

2 

26 






13^ 

954 

35 

0 

7 

u 

88 

27 

14 

280 

26' 

3528 

129 

2 

22 

2f 





14 

1026 

37 

2 

24 


96 

30 

151 

320 






2* 

314 

66 

105f 



Number and Size of Cables,' Hdwsers, and Messengers, al¬ 
lowed to the different class Vessels in the U. S. Navy. 


Weight of Anchors, exclusive of Stocks, for the different classes of Vessels 
in the U. S. Navy. 


CABLES. 

SHEET. 

BOW¬ 

ERS. 

stre’m 

HAWSERS. 

MES¬ 

SEN¬ 

GERS. 

CHAIN 

CABLES. 













Size of 

No. & Size. 


X. 


JS 

o 

x 

0 

d 

Inch. 

d 


d 

Iron in 


z 


z 

c 

z 


* 


fc 

a 

z 

Inches. 

74 of 3 decks 

1 

25 

5 

24 

1 

15V 

6 

11,10,9.8,7,6 

3 

14V 

2 

2 3-16 

“ 2 d’ks,lst class 

1 

24 

5 

23 

1 

14.1 

6 

11,10,9,8,7,6 

1 

13 V 

2 

2 1-8 

« tc 2(1 “ 

1 

23 

5 

221 

1 

14 

•6 

10,9,8,7,6,5 

1 

13 

2 

2 

Razee 













Frigates 













1st class 

1 

22 V 

5 

22 

1 

13 

5 

10,9,8,7,6 

1 

13 

2 

1 7-8 

2d class 

1 

22 

4 

21 

l 

12 

3 

7,6,5 

1 

HJ 

2 

1 3-4 

Sloops 













1st class 



3 

16 

1 

9 

3 

6,o,4 

1 

10 

2 

1 1-2 

2d class 



3 

15 

1 

9 

’2 

6,0 

1 

3 ' 

2 

1 3-8 

31 class 













Brigs St Schooners 



3 

12 





1 

7 

2 

1 1-4 



BOWERS 

STREAM. 




EEDGES. 



AND SHEET. 





Class of Vessel. 

No. 

Weight. 

No. 

W’t. 

No. 

W’t. 

W’t. 

'W’t. 

W’t. 

W’t. | W’t. 

,74 of 3 decks 

4 

10,500 

1 

3,200 

6 

1,400 

1,200 

1,000 

800 

700 

600 

“ 1st class, 2d’ks 

4 

9,600 

1 

3,000 

5 

1,200 

900 

760 

600 

500 


1 2d “ “ 

4 

8,500 

1 

2,800 

5 

1,000 

900 

750 

600 

450 


Razee 

4 

8,500 

1 

2,600 

5 

1,000 

900 

750 

600 

460 


Frigate, 1st class 

4 

7,000 

1 

2.600 

4 

900 

700 

600 

400 



| “ 2d 

4 

5,000 

1 

1,400 

4 

850 

700 

600 

400 



Sloop, 1st class 

4 

3,800 

1 

1,000 

3 

600 

450 

300 




I «. 2d “ ? 

1 « 3d « ( 

1 

4 

( 1 of 3200 
1 2 “ 3000 
( 1 “ 2800 











30 


All the Rope used in the U. S. States Navy is tested before it is used, and the following strength is required, viz.: 

For a cable yarn,.140 lbs. I For standing rigging yarn. 112 lbs. 

,, running rigging yarn,. ,, 125 ,, | ,» ball-rope yarn,.100 ,, 

In the Whaling service there is a superior kind of rope, called whale lines : these are light and strong size lj inch, ot 

thread, 120 fathoms length, weight 110 lbs.; and it is required to bear a strain of 100 lbs. to the yarn. 


* In this Table, the weight of the rope is that of 100 fathoms in length; of the chain, the weight of a fathom; the weight 
nf the anchor generally used with such sized hemp or chain, and the size of the vessel. This, of course, varies according to 
the judgment—but the table shows the general usage. 29 

































































































114 


CANVAS. 


— 


American Canvas is of two kinds —Phcnix Mill and Cotton Duck. 


1st. The PHENJX MILL CANVAS is made from flax into bolts, 40 yards long, 20 inches wide; 
and the different qualities weigh as follows, viz: 


No. 1,.47 1-2 lbs. Avoirdupois. 

“ 2.........42 1-2 “ “ 

“ 3,.35 “ “ 

“ 4,.32 1-2 “ “ 


No. 5,.30 lbs. Avoirdupois 

“ 6,.25 “ “ 

“ 7,.221-2“ “ 

“ 8 ,. 20 “ “ 


The experiments of the Navy go to establish that 20 inches wide makes the strongest seam and the 
best sail, every way. 


Vessels-of-war, according to theif class, take as follows for a single suit of sails, viz: 


A Three-decker,........ .. .18,805. running y’ds. 

Ship of the line, 1st class,... 18,479 “ “ 

“ “ “ 2d “ ...17,171 “ “ 

Frigate, 1st “ ...14,603 “ “ 


Frigate, 2d class,.12,080 running y’ds. 

!Sloop, 1st “ 9,637 “ “ 

“ 2d “ . 8,275 “ “ 

Schooner, 1st “ .... _ 3,102 “ “ 


2d. COTTON DUCK, which is 22 inches wide, and numbers from one to eight; number one being 
the heaviest. There are several manufactories of this article. This is used mostly for fore-and-aft ves¬ 
sels. Occasionally, square rigged vessels have sails made of it; and lately, some East-Indiamen out of 
this port, have had whole suits of sails made of it. 

HOLLAND DUCK.-r-Of this canvas there are two widths, 24 inch and 31 inch. This duck is now 
mostly used for square rigged vessels, for top-sails and courses. It was formerly much used on coasting 
vessels; (that is, sloops and schooners); but Cotton Duck being a closer canvas, holds the wind better, 
and coming something cheaper, now takes the precedence. 


ENGLISH CANVAS.—Of which there are many kinds. The first in order is the 

LEITH DUCK.-^-It is 24 inches wide, and generally considered the best duck in use for square 
sails. Second to that is the NAVY DUCK.—This is also 24 inches wide, and for weight, (number one 
being the heaviest), numbers from that to eight. The number one is suitable for fore and main top-sails, 
fore courses, fore and main stay-sails, spencers, and brigs’ try-sails. No. two, for square main-sails, and 
mizen top-sails, for the largest size ships. No. three , for smaller class of vessels’ square main-sails and 
mizen top-sails, and fore and main top-gallant sails, jibs and spankers of the largest size ships. No. 
four , for smaller class vessels’ top-gallant sails an,d jibs. No’s.Are and six, for flying-jibs, top-mast and 
lower studding-sails, .and mizen top-gallant sails. No’s, seven and eight, for top-gallant studding-sails, 
royals, and top-mast and top-gallant stay-sails. 

RUSSIA DUCKS.—These are numerous. The three best which are put in the order of quality, 
and are suitable for the heavy sails of ships, brigs, &c., are D. Brusgins, I. Brusgins, and M. Zotoff. 
Next comes the HALF DUCK, for top-gallant sails and jibs. Then, the HEAVY RAVENS DUCK, 
which is used for mizen top-gallant sails, top-mast, and lower studding-sails; and, sometimes, for fore 
and main top-gallant sails and flying jibs of small brigs and schooners. The last is RAVENS DUCK; 
which is used for royals and top-gallant studding-sails. Most of the Russia Canvas is used for small 
vessels. It is not as much used as formerly. 


















115 


GUNS. 


It was the intention of the American editor, on the commencement of this work, to have added some 
pages on Gunnery; but finding it would add materially to the size of the book, he has confined himself 
to a statement as shown in the Tables of the weight of the guns in use by the principal European pow¬ 
ers, as taken from Belcher, and that of our own service; for which, with the remarks* he is indebted 
to the kindness of Commodore A. S. Wadsworth, U. S. Navy. 

Those wishing to see into the practice of guns are referred to Sir Howard Douglas, on Naval Gun¬ 
nery, and Totten’s Naval Text Book. 


A TABLE, 


Showing the Calibre and Length of Iron Guns, with the Standard weight and diameter of Shot adopted 

by several European powers.. 


ENGLISH. 

IEON. 

FRENCH. 

SPANISH. 

DUTCH. 

PORTUGUESE. 

RUSSIAN. 

Prs. 

Calibre. 

Dia. 

Shot. 

Length 

VV eight 

Dia. 

Shot. 

Weight 

Shot. 

Dia. 

Weight 

Dia. 

Weight 

Dia. 

Weight 

Dia. 

Weight 

*101 

$68" 

42 

32 

24 

18 

12 

8.008 > 
6.8208 
6.2297 
5.6601 
5.1425 
4.4924 

7.8480 

6.6844 

6.1051 

5.5469 

5.0397 

4.4026 

9.4 

9.6 

9.6 

9.0 

9.0 

9.0 

84.0. 0 

07 0 O 







7 49 

6 -00 
5.930 
5.400 

4 700 

59.09 
35,1 y 
29.32 
22.14 
14.60 

t^60 

6.000 

5.450 

4.760 

45.40 

r h*08* 

30.38 

22.77 

15.16 

55.0. 0 
47.2. 0 
40.0. 0 
32.0. 0 

6.3496 

5.808 

5.074 

4.610 

36.00 

27.55 

18.37 

13.78 

6.810 

6.030 

5.520 

4.800 

45 0 
30.84 
23.65 
15.55 

6.400 

5.920 

5.450 

4.760 

36.87 

29.18 

22.77 

15.16 


* Inch shot, new gun. f 8 inch, new gun. 


Length, Weight, Calibre , Charge, fc. of Ordnance, generally used in the Naval Service of the United States. 


NATURE OF GUN. 


10 inch. 


8 inch. 

42 pounder.... 
82 pounder.... 
32 pounder.... 
32 pounder.... 
24 pounder.... 
24 pounder.... 
42 I'd. carronade 
32 lb. carronade 


LENGTH, 


ft. in. 

9 4 
8 10 


8 0 
9 0 


cwt . qrs. 

87 21 

l 

63 I 
l 

71 

62 

51 

42 

19 
32 

20 

21 


Proportionate 
weight of Shot to 
the Gun, 


1 to 
1 .. 98$ 
1 .. 110 ^ 
1 ..150$ 
1 ..190 
1 ..217 
1 ..180 
1 ..150 


.229 


1 ..150 


CALIBRE. 

Diameter ol 
the high 
Slmt Gauge. 

Diameter of 
the low 
Shot Gauge 

SERVICE 

CHARGE. 

PROOF CHARGE, 
fired twice. 

Powder. 

Shot. 

izu 


in. 

lus. oz. 

lbs. 


lio 

9 90 

9 80 

10 

201 

{ 

1 solid, 
127 lbs. 

J 




-.of 

1 solid, 

\ 8 

7 90 

7 80 

8 

18 { 

64 lbs. 

J 7 

6 90 

6 80 

12 

21 

2 

6 40 

6 30 

6 20 

10 

16 

2 

6 40 

6 30 

6 20 

8 

12 

2 

6 40 

6 30 

6 20 

6 

10 

2 

5 82 

5 72 

5 62 

8 

12 

2 . 

5 82 

5 72 

5 62 

5 

9 

2 

7 

6 90 

6 80 

4 8 

8 

1 

6 40 

6 30 

6 20 

3 4 

6 

1 


i 42 pr. chamber. 
32 pr. chamber. 


24 pr. chamber. 


f Solid shot. 


X Hollow shot. 



















































lie 


GUNS AND GUN CARRIAGES. 


—©Q©— 


Service charges are reduced as may be necessary—for heavy guns to a ; 4th andSth, and for *car- 
ronades to a 12th and 14th the weight of the shot. . r 

A <mn should never be charged with two shot without a wad between them, as without it one of 
the shot will almost invariably break in the gun, and the fragments becoming wedged, will either 

burst the gun or injure the bore. . . , , 

Guns are proved, after examining them as to their several'dimensions, by placing a skid under 
** the trunnions; and they are fifed at a small elevation and suffered to recoil on the ground. The 
trunnions are examined with k hammer, and the bores and vents are carefully inspected with a 
searcher 

" The length of a gun is measured from the after part of the base ring to the face of the muzzle. 




The following variations only are allowed from the given dimensions of Gms. 


In diameter of the bore,.... 
In the exterior when turned 


Diameters when not turned 


Length 


Depth of cavities 



of the bore,... 

of breech and cascable,. 

of the runforce,.. 

of the chace, including muzzle,. 

from base ring to trunnions,. 

in the bore or vent,. 

on the exterior surface,... 

on the trunnions, within 1 inch of the rim base, 
elsewhere,.... 


Inch. 
< more 0.04 
^ less 0.00 
imore or less 0.05 
t more 0.20 
’*•••• } less 0.05 
.more or less 0.20 
. “ “ 0.20 

. “ “ 0.20 

. “ “ 0.15 

. “ “0 20 

.0.00 

.0.25 

. 0.10 

.0.25 


Weight of Gun Carriages used in the '> U. S. 'Navy. 


Weight of a 10 inch gun carriage,.6,093 lbs. 

“ 8 “ “ “ 1,788 “ 

“ 42 lb. “ “ 1,615 “ 

“ heavy 32 “ “ “ 1,320 “ 

“ light 32 « “ “ 1,272 “ 

“ 24 “ medium “ 987 “ 


Weight of a 42 lb. carronade carriage,.1,236 “ 

« 32 “ •« “ 788 “ 

“ 24 “ “ “ 620 “ 


Note .—The elevating screws, beds, and quoins, are included in the above weights. Beds and quoins average 70 lbs. 

Shot are inspected by passing them through a cylinder of the diameter of the largest size of the 
shot, and afterwards examined with a gauge of the smallest diameter, to determine their size. A 
portion of them are dropped 25 or 30 feet, on a bed of iron; and they are each examined with a 
hammer and steel point. All shot are rejected which are not perfectly spherical in their form— 
which are of rough and uneven surface—which have cavities of the depth-of^ lOths of an inch from the 
surface—which are'not of full weight and of prope« size, and made of good iron. 

The strength of powder is ascertained by the distance which an ounce (Avoirdupois) of the powder 
will throw a 24 pound ball, without windage from the established eprouvette, fired at an elevation of 
45°. But this proof is by no means satisfactory. The standard range for powder used in the Navy is 
250 yards. Cannon powder is packed in well seasoned white oak barrels, which hold 100 lbs., leaving 
a space of two inches between the powder and the head. Priming powder is packed in kegs and half 
barrels, containing 25 and 50 lbs., respectively. In the magazines of ships the cartridges are all filled 
and stowed in copper boxes, which are water tight. 

Percussion locks are now generally used in the Navy. Those made by Mr. Hidden, with a sliding 
hammer, are deemed the best. 



























117 


RANGES OF SEA ORDNANCE. 

—©QO- 

In no department of the Naval service is there so little certainty known as in this. The conditions 
which determine the path and force of a ball are in themselves so various, and so difficult of attainment, 
that a mere recapitulation of them would satisfy any mind that no ordinary obstacles interpose to pre¬ 
vent a full solution of the question. Still, there may be obtained, from long and careful practice, such 
tabular results as may enable a young officer, with moderate experience, to form some idea of the 
capacity of sea ordnance. There is nothing which our service stands more in need of, and the Secretary 
who feels disposed to confer a lasting benefit on the Navy, cannot fail to do so, by directing a full and 
accurate inquiry into this matter. 

In support of these remarks, the following ranges, attributed to the 24 pounder, are taken from the 
tables of some of the best authorities. 


AUTHORITY. 


LONG IRON 24. 


Calibre. 

Length. 

Charge. 


Range. 






feet . 



yards. 



Pocket Gunner,.... 


24 

91 

\ 

Point Blank,... 

297 

English, 

..No. 1. 

Pocket Gunner,... . 


24 

2 

Cl 

1 

258 

“ 2. 

Beauchant . 

. 20 { 

b 2 

T 



Aide Memoire. 

26 

0b 

9 i 

| 

Nat. P. Blank, . 

639 

French, . 

.. “ 7 . 

Man. de l’Artilleur,. . . 

26 

l 

682 

“ 8 . 

Exercises of 1811 . 

26 


l 

I 

■g 

“ « 

640 

U 

.. “ 9 . 

Pocket Gunner,.. .. 

...201 

24 

o\ 

Point Blank,... 

360 

English, 

44 

.. “ 3 . 


...200 

24 

9f 

1 

f 

“ “ 

265 

.. “ 4 . 

frl 44 


24 

U 

6 ! 

1 

44 44 

288 

44 

“ 5 . 

Beauchant, ... 

24 

l 

44 44 " ] 

247 

44 

.. “ 6. 










The difference of Point Blank range between the French and English guns, of nearly similar calibre, 
is attributable to the different signification conveyed by the term “ Point Blank” in the two services. In 
the French, the upper surface is levelled, and the point where the path of the shot intersects the line of 
sight, is the Point Blank range. This is expressly stated in the Text-book, and cannot escape the no¬ 
tice of the reader. Hence the cylinder of the gun has a certain elevation, varying with the pattern of 
the gun, from 1° 1.1/ to 1° 29'. In the English tables, the cylinder of the gun is supposed to be levelled, 
and the point where the shot strikes the horizontal plane produced from the platform on which the gun 
carriage stands, is taken as the Point Blank. Captain Simmons asserts that the English Point Blank is 
known to every body to be “the distance which the shot flies before it is brought down by gravity to the 
“ plane which is parallel to the axis of the bore of the gun, and tangential to the gun wheels, or fore trucks.” 
But there is some reason to doubt if this be so well known, for those who write on Naval Gunnery say 
nothing about it, and the very definition of Simmons lacks precision; for we can as well infer from it that 
the English Point Blank is derived from a horizontal bore as a horizontal line of metal. 

But what can be depended on from the various ranges of a 24 pound shot, as given above by English 
authorities! No doubt the most palpable discrepancies are mere typographical errors—but such should 
never be suffered to remain in tables of range. On the whole, there is much reason to doubt whether the 
Point Blank range of a 24, with * charge, ever reached so far as 300 yards. 


30 


























118 


The English tables being generally current in the U. S. Navy, are not given here; but as many may 
be desirous of having some of the authorities to which French Naval officers are referred by their govern¬ 
ment, the following succinct statement is taken from Montgery: it is French Point Blank, equivalent to 
our line-of-metal range;, and,.except the ranges of the carronades, the distances are quoted by Mont¬ 
gery from Churruca, 


POINT BLANK IN YARDS. 


Nature of. Gun. 

Elevation 
OF BpRE. 

Hound Shot. 

Grape. 

Long.39 

“ .24 

0, /: 

1 32 

639 

320 

1 29 

639 

320 

“ ..19 

1 30 

639 

320 

“ .12 

1 25 

586 

320 

Carronade, . .39 

3 43 

905 

480 

“ ..24 

3 19 

800 

430 


More extensive tables are given in the Manoeuvrier, also taken from Churruca, captain in the Spanish 
Navy, by Captain Willaumez, of the French service. In these is given the number of feet to be aimed 
at, above or below the mark to be struck.. 


SHOT—SHELLS. 

This species of projectile has recently been introduced into the several principal navies, and now 
forms a part of the armament of all heavy ships. Shells have been used ashore and afloat for a long 
time ; but in the Navy they were only projected from heavy mortars ; and in the land service, though 
thrown horizontally, yet, from light pieces, called howitzers, of so little efficiency as to make slight impression, 
except on masses of men in the open field. In 1822, Col. Paixhans, an officer of French artillery, pub¬ 
lished a work proposing the use of shells fired horizontally from heavy ordnance on board of shipping; at 
the same time, he insisted strenuously on the necessity of having the armament of a vessel of one calibre, 
and proposed the pattern of a gun, which he thought preferable to any other for shell service. The prin¬ 
ciple on which this gun is modelled is by no means original, being almost identical with that of the Con¬ 
greve gun, which, when tried, failed, in the estimation of many good judges, to throw a round shot with 
equal force and precision; to the old pattern. 

The idea of firing shells from heavy ordnance being presented to notice simultaneously with the pat¬ 
tern of his own gun, by Paixhans, has caused both to be so closely associated, that in common opinion they 
are considered one and the same thing; which is so far from being the case, that while shells within their 
proper limits must be very effective, it may be well considered an open question, whether one kind of 
gun or another is best adapted to give the shell range and precision. 

Two sets of experiments were made by order of the French government^one, to test the effect of 
shells on a line-of-battle ship, which proved fully equal to that anticipated; and another,.to determine and 
compare the range of the Paixhans 86 with the long 39 and other calibres. 














119 


The following results are extracted from the publication of Col. Paixhans :• 


Experiments made at Brest in October, 1834, on the 
range of Bomb Cannon of 86], compared with that 
of the sea gun, and on the ra nges of solid shot com¬ 
pared with that of hollow shot. 

In recommending peculiar pieces for the hor¬ 
izontal projection of bombs, 1 sought to prove 
that they would possess a range ecpial to that of the 
present sea artillery, and even greater.;, the first trials 
at Brest in December, 1S23, and January, 1824, 
have proved this to be the case. The result, 
which is inconsistent with received opinion, was 
attributed to the reduced windage of my gun ; 
and it is true, that to this, in connexion with the 
increase of calibre, it was principally due. 

It then became desirable to know to what ex¬ 
tent the ordinary gun could be improved by re¬ 
ducing the windage; new trials were therefore 
instituted, ashore, for greater accuracy, and the 
ranges of the bomb cannon 86] were compared 
with those of guns and carronades of 39 and 2G, 
using in the latter balls sufficiently large to pro¬ 
duce a windage equal to that of the new piece. 

As it was wished at the same time to compare 
the range of hollow shot with that of solid shot, 
trials were made with both in the calibres 861, 
39 and 26. 

The results are given in the table, in which 
I shall only refer to the ranges of the 86] and long 
39, omitting those of the 26 and carronades; for 
the long 39 being the heaviest in service, will suf¬ 
fice, a fortiori, for the comparison in view. 

For the 26 and. the carronades a summary will 
answer. 


The solid shot of 86| calibre weighed 
from 86J to 891 pounds ; the hollow, from 
601 to 6-2.1. 

The solid shot of 39. having been chosen 
from the heaviest, weighed from 41 to 42 
pounds ; and the hollow, from 28 to 29 
pounds. 

RANGE IN YARDS. 

Bomb Cannon .86 

Ordin. Long 39. 

Solid. 

Hollow. 

Solid. 

Hollow. 

Charge of Powder. 

For the 39, 7,757 pounds. 

“ 86], 10,793 

Mean range,....... 

At an elevation of 3 degrees. 

2089 

15023 

2089 

15023 

1460 

2216] 

1918-' 

1918] 

1886] 

15343 

15981 

19,39® 

2110], 

1577] 

1598] 

1875], 

1715] 

1522 

1810 

1799| 

1762 

1704] 

% 

Same charge. 

Mean range,. 

At an elevation of 5 degrees. 

2110] 

2110] 

20671 

24511 

1897 

21311 

1886] 

19521 

2025 

19181 

19073 

1897 

2282] 

2430 

25401 

1818] 

2072 

1875] 

2128 

1931] 

2417] 

1922 

Charge. 

For the 39, 9,714 pounds. 

“• 861, 13,355 

Mean range,. 

At an elevation of 8 degrees. 

2221 

2210’ 

2218g 

24831 

2238 

22421 

2280] 

2434 

2421] 

2402 

22271 

2397] 

2280] 

2349 

2419] 

2099] 

2423] 

2513' 

2269 

23601 

2349] 

2345] 

Same charge. 

Mean range,. 

At an elevation of 10 degrees. 

23761 

2472| 

2366' 

24231 

26151 

2660 

2621] 

2604] 

2589] 

2483 

2610 

2419 

2579 

2749] 

2930] 

2711] 

2493] 

2312] 

2485] 

2554] 

2753] 

2506 

Charge. 

For the 39, 12,951 pounds. 

“ 861, 17,809 

Mean range,. 

At an elevation of 16 degrees. 

3223 

3636] 

35251 

3529] 

3922 

36121 

3442] 

3719! 

3932] 

3794 

33291 

3421' 

36551 

3943] 

3747] 

3389 

3378] 

3229].. 

3608 

3606] 

3782 

3332] 
















































120 


From these trials, Paixhans infers,—that there is little foundation for the belief that shells have such 
an inferior range; and also, that his 86 pounder ranges nearly equal to the long 39. 

With the enormous discrepancies that exist among the several rounds, it is to be doubted whether 
such important conclusions are at all admissible; or, indeed, that any conclusion can be fairly deduced, 
except that the ranges of these, and all calibres from 18 up, should be submitted to a rigid scrutiny, and 
some hundred rounds fired from each piece upon the water; noting the recoil of the gun on a level plat¬ 
form; distance of first graze and extreme range; number of ricochets; deflection of shot from vertical 
line; difference of range between two shot fired together from the same gun; and using shot from the 
greatest windage to that fitted close with a patch, with and without sabots: the ordnance to have vent 
pieces, which are to be replaced whenever the vent is perceptibly enlarged. 

It would have been more satisfactory if Paixhans had stated distinctly whether the elevation given 
in his tabular results, referred to the bore of the gun or the line-of .metal: because the angle of the latter, 
being 2° greater in his gun than that of the long 39, in consequence of the greater thickness at the breech, 
must therefore give a greater inclination to the bore, if the gun be elevated by the line of metal. 

That there is some such relation between the ranges of a solid shot of 86 and one of 39 lbs., cannot be 
denied; but this is not to be attributed to the particular form of the Paixhans gun—it arises from the well 
known fact that the surface of the ball does not increase ,in the same ratio as its weight, and hence that 
the momentum of the larger projectile is increased greatly, while the resistance it meets with has but a 
trifling addition. Here, then, is the advantage which Paixhans has availed himself of, and which might 
have given a fairer character to the Congreve pattern, and to that of Bloomfield, if, instead of a calibre of 
24, they had thrown a ball of 80 or 100 pounds. There are good reasons for thinking that alight calibre, 
after the Paixhans model, would hardly be more successful with the corresponding long gun than those 
of the same character that preceded it. 


The following data from Simmons are brought together, with the view of showing the English opin¬ 
ion on this subject. 

Comparative penetrations of solid shot from 42 and 84 pounders, charge of each ^—medium windage of 42 and 84 = 125 in.— 
and of shells from the French 86 , charge y the weight of shell, and windage f of one tenth; also, solid shot from the 
French 39, charge y and windage 18 in. 


RANGE IN Y’DS 

RELATIVE PENETRATING FORCE. 

42 Pounder. 

84 Pounder. 

French 

39 Pounder. 

French 

86 Pr. Shell. 

500 

85,921 

114,597 

80,209 

60,224 

800 

66,846 

91,288 

55,434 

40,909 

1000 

46,583 

75,065 

43,852 

32,242 

1200 

37,076 

62,060 

34,968 

25,173 

1500 

26,699 

44,978 

25,329 

17,832 

2000 

16,305 

30,729 

15,616 

10,827 

2500 

10,714 

20,909 

10,378 

7,254 

3000 

7,570 

14,827 

7,400 

5,367 














121 


The following selection is made from the old tables by way of comparing the ranges of shot and shells, 
and to give some idea of the conclusion that would be made by following these results. The shells were 
5| inch, fired from a long 24 of 9| feet and 49 cwt., charge 3 lbs. Having no ranges of 24 pound shot 
with a like charge, those from an 18 pounder are given, of 9 feet and 40 cwt.; also, the range of shells 
from a heavy 5| inch Howitzer of 10 cwt., charge 3 lbs, and shot from an 18 of 9|- feet and 42 cwt. 

RANGES IN YARDS- 


ELEVATION. 

SHELLS. 

SHOT. 

Long 34. 

Howitzer op 34. 

Long 18—9 Feet. 

18 PoUNEER. 
9J Feet. 

1st Graze. 

Extreme 

Range. 

1st Graze. 

Extreme 

Range. 

1st Graze. 

Extreme 

Range. 

1st Graze. 

Point blank 





325 

1,620 

308 

1° 

277 

1,424 

479 


577 

1,857 

503 

2 

526 

1,464 

722 


695 

1,793 

757 

3 

740 

],600 

921 


965 

1,723 

1,058 

5 

1,182 

1,733 

1,325 


1,517 

2,100 

1,365 

8 

1,520 

1,744 

1,721 


.... 

.... 

1,980 


Such are the different ranges attained with one charge, those of shot from the two kinds of long 18 
pounders are discordant enough. The ranges of shells from the long 24 weighing 16j lbs. are by no means 
very inferior to those obtained by Paixhans. The ranges of one 18 pounder are from those obtained in 
1813, the other on Sutton heath in 1810, and both given by respectable authority. Considerable as the 
differences are, it is not improbable they are both right—for they are far less than the differences exist¬ 
ing between many of the rounds recorded in the experiments made to test the Paixhans gun. Something 
of the kind may always be expected where the ranges are tried on land; for, in addition to the variety 
of soil which may be found at intervals of 200 or 300 yards, there is scarcely ever a perfect level ob¬ 
tainable of any great extent. Hence if the ball meet with a wet spot it may lodge, or lose much of its 
force—if it strike on hard ground it may glance off and go farther—an inclination of the soil upwards or 
downwards will produce nearly like effects. These obstacles do not intervene when the range is tried 
on water, though it may be much more difficult to note the distance. That it can be done, is evidenced 
by the fact that the tables of Captain Churruca of the Spanish navy were formed from trials of this kind. 
The Point Blank ranges already given, are abridged from his tables by Montgery. 

Note. —The American Editor is indebted to his friend, Lieut. John A. Dahlgren, U. S. Navy, for the article on the 
4 ‘ Ranges of Sea Ordnance.” 


31 




















m 


SPARS. 

— 

The Tables annexed give the length of the spars in some of our most approved ships. It will be seen' 
that there is no rule; but the judgment of the builder decides. 

American ships, however, are much lighter sparred than English ships, as will be seen by reference 
to the Table on next page, taken from the Art of Mast-making. 




TABLE 


Ship Liverpool. 

feet, inches. 

Length . 175 10 

Breadth . 36 9 

Depth . 22 2 

Am. tons.1077 g 3 j 

Ship Ashburton. 

feet, inches. 

Length .166 2 
Breadth . 36 6 
Depth ..21 9 

Am. tons . 1015 5 3 5 
Eng. “ . 926 

(Ship Pat'k Henry. 

feet, inches 

Length .160 0 

Breadth . 34 10 
Depth .. 21 10 
Am. tons.881 §§ 
Eng. “ .1014, 
including poop. 

Ship Victoria. 

feet, inches. 

Length .133 9 

Breadth . 35 3 

Depth ..21 9 

Am. tons. 868 

Ship St- James. 

feet, inches. 

Length .133 9 
Breadth . 32 8 

Depth .. 20 6 
Am. to ns. 641 

Eng. „ .619 

Ship Courier. 

feet, inches. 

Length .116 0 
Breadth . 27 0 

Depth . . 16 10 
Am. tons .4380 

NAMES OF THE 

MASTS AND 

SPARS. 

LENGTH OF SPARS. 

LENGTH OF SPARS. 

LENGTH OF SPARS. 

LENGTH OF SPARS. 

LENGTH OF SPARS. 

LENGTH OF SPARS. 

Fore . 

Top . 

Top-gallant. 

Royal . 

Sky-sail. ... 

Main . 

Top . 

Top-gallant. 

Royal . 

Sky-sail. ... 
Mizen or ) 
Cross Jack j 

Top . 

Top-gallant. 

Royal . 

Sky sail. .. . 
* Bowsprit. . 
f Jib-boom . 
fFlying ditto 
Span’r boom 
Gaff . 

Masts. 

Yards. 

Masts. 

Yards. 

Masts. 

Yards. 

Masts. 

Yards. 

Masts. 

Yards. 

Masts. 

Yards r 

78 feet 
44 „ 

24 „ 

17 „ 

11 

80 „ 

46 ,, 

264 „ 

20 „ 

13 „ 

73 „ 

37 4 „ 

20 „ 
144 „ 

10 „ 

28 „ 

24 „ 

16 „ 

42 „ 

39 „ 

65 feet 
51 „ 

37 „ 

28 „ 

79 „ 
454 „ 
244 „ 

17 „ 

66 feet 
524 „ 

38 „ 

29 „ 

78 feet 
44 „ 

24 „ 

17 „ 

11 „ 

80 „ 

46 ,, 
264 „ 

20 „ 

13 „ 

73 „ 

374 „ 

20 „ 
144 „ 

10 „ 

30 „ 

25 „ 

16 „ 

65 feet 
51 „ 

37 „ 

28 „ 

724 feet 
434 ,, 

25 „ 
154 „ 

61 feet 
50 „ 

354 „ 

27 „ 

69 feet 
41 „ 

00 

~~ 99 

15 „ 

60 feet 
50 „ 

34 „ 

25 „ 

58 feet 
34 „ 

18 „ 

12 „ 

9 „ 

60 ,, 

36 „ 

19 „ 

13 „ 

10 „ 

54 ,, 

27 „ 

154 „ 

11 „ 

8 „ 

20 „ 

17 „ 

11 „ 

33 „ 

24 „ 

49 feet 
39 „ 

30 , r 

24 „ 

20 ., 

52 „ 

42 „ 

33 „ 

26 „ 

22 „ 

42 „ 

33 „ 

°6 

,9 

OO 

,9 

694 „ 

55 „ 

41 „ 

32 ,, 

814 „ 

47 

26 „ 

19 „ 

68 „ 
534 „ 

40 „ 

31 „ 

694 „ 

55 „ 

41 „ 

32 „ 

754 „ 

44 „ 

25 „ 
154 „ 

67 „ 

54 ,, 
384 „ 

29 „ 

73 „ 

43 „ 

23 „ 

16 „ 

61 „ 

51 „ 

364 ,, 

26 „ 

55 „ 

42 „ 

30 „ 

OO 

76 „ 

38 „ 

20 „ 

13 „ 

OO 99 

42 „ 

31 „ 

22 „ 

55 „ 

42 „ 

30 „ 

22 „ 

694 „ 

37 „ 
204 „ 
124 M 

49 „ 

39 3 „ 
284 „ 

22 „ 

65 „ 

35 „ 

17 „ 

12 „ 

39 „ 

49 

264 ,, 

19 „ 


294 „ 
214 „ 

16 „ 

43 „ 

41 „ 



25 „ 
214 „ 

14 „ 


28 „ 
254 „ 
204 „ 

38 „ 










I 








! 








* Out board. f Outside cap. 


The above, with the exception of the Courier, are New York built ships. The Courier was built in 
Newbury port, Massachusetts. 


























































































123 


TABLE, 

Showing the Dimensions of Masts and Yards used in the English Merchant Service. 


\ 

j NAMES OF THE 
MASTS AND 

YARDS. 

1100 TONS. 

1000 TONS. 

900 TONS. 

600 TONS. 

400 TONS. 

MASTS or 

BOOMS. 

YARDS. 

MASTS or 

BOOMS. 

YARDS. 

MASTS or 

BOOMS. 

YARD3. 

MASTS or 

BOOMS. 

YARDS. 

MASTS or 

BOOMS. 

YARDS. 


Length 

Dia. 

Length 

Dia. 

Length 

Dia. 

Length 

Dia. 

Length 

Dia. 

Length Dia. 

Lengthioia. 

Length 

Dia. 

Length 

Dia. 

Length 

Dia. 


Ft. In. 

In, 

Ft. In. 

In, 

Ft. ITU 

In, 

Ft, In. 

I n. 

Ft. In. 

I n. 

F f . In. 

In. 

Ft. In. 

In. 

Ft. In. 

In. 

Ft. /|». 

If. 

Ft. In. 

In. 

Main.. 

90 0 

30 

SO f) 

20 

87 0 

29 

78 0 

19 

86 0 

28 

76 0 

18* 

78 0 

24 

62 0 

15* 

70 0 

21* 

50 0 

13 

Top . 

56 0 

17* 

57 6 

134 

52 0 

164 

54 0 

13 

50 0 

16 

52 0 

124 

48 0 

15 

48 II 

12' 

41 0 

13 

39 0 

10 

Top-gallant.... 

27 0 

9 

37 0 

8 

26 0 

9 

36 0 

8 

26 0 

9 

34 0 

8 

23 0 

8 

32 0 

7* 

23 0 

7 h 

29 0 

6* 

Royal. 

20 0 

6* 

23 0 

5 

19 0 

C£ 

22 0 

5 

19 0 

54 

21 0 

44 





15 0 

5 

20 0 

5 

Fore . 

84 0 

294 

76 0 

18* 

81 0 

29 

72 0 

18 

79 0 

j 

28 

70 0 

x j 

17 

73 0 

23* 

58 0 

14* 

65 0 

21 

49 0 

12* 

Top . 

52 0 

m 

52 0 

13 

50 0 

16* 

52 0 

12* 

48 0 

16 

50 0 

12 

46 0 

15 

46 0 

U* 

40 0 

13 

39 0 

10 

Top-gallant .... 

26 0 

9 

36 0 

7* 

24 0 

9 

34 0 

<4 

23 0 

9 

32 0 

7* 

22 0 

8 

30 0 

7* 

21 0 

7* 

27 0 

6 

Royal. 

18 0 

6 

21 0 

5 

17 0 

6 

20 0 

4* 

17 0 

54 

19 0 

4* 





14 0 

6 

19 0 

4* 

Ml ZEN . 

78 0 

21 

68 0 

13 

76 0 

20 

66 0 

12* 

76 0 

2 

20 

64 0 

1 2 
12 

68 0 

16 

60 6 

10* 

62 0 

15 

30 0 

7* 

Top . 

39 0 

12 

38 0 

9 

38 0 

12 

38 0 

9 

37 0 

10 

1 /v 

35 0 

8* 

30 0 

10* 

32 0 

8 

30 0 

9* 

30 0 

7* 

Top-gallant .... 

20 0 

6* 

26 0 

5 

19 0 

0* 

26 0 

5* 

19 0 

6 

23 0 

5 

18 0 

5* 

22 0 

4* 

16 0 

5 

20 0 

5 

Royal. 

12 0 

5 

16 0 

4 * 

10 0 

4* 

14 0 

4 













Bowspi it . 

58 0 

30 

54 0 

m 

54 0 

29 

54 0 

n* 

54 0 

28 

50 0 

10* 

50 0 

24* 

48 0 

9* 

47 0 

21 

36 0 

7* 

Jib-boom. 

40 0 

12 

38 0 

8 

40 0 

12 

36 0 

8 

40 0 

12 

36 0 

8 

36 0 

10* 

32 0 

7 

34 0 

10 

, 



TABLE 


Of Masts and Spars of Vessels of the United States Navy. Prepared by Francis Grice, Naval Constructor , 

U. S. Navy Yard , Brooklyn. 



120 GUNS. 

80 GUNS. 

74 GUNS. 

44 GUNS. 

22 GUNS. 

22 GUNS. 

16 GUNS. 

10 GUNS. 


PENNSYLVANIA. 

DELAWARE. 

FRANKLIN. 

POTOMAC. 

ALBANY. 

LEVANT. 

YORKTOWN. 

BRIG TRUXTON. 

Length between per- 

















pendiculars,. 

212 feet 11 in. 

199 feet 2 in. 

190 feet 10 in. 

177 feet 10 in. 

150 feet 7 in. 

134 feet 7 in. 

119 feet 7 in. 

102 feet 6 in. 

Breadth, extreme,.... 

57 “ 

6 “ 

54 “ 

6 “ 

51 “ 

7* “ 

46 “ 

2 “ 

39 “ 

6 “ 

36 “ 


32 “ 

11 “ 

28 “ 

2 “ 

Depth,. 

24 “ 

3 “ 

21 “ 

7 “ 

19 “ 

9 “ 

21 “ 

2 “ 

18 “ 


15 “ 


15 “ 


13 “ 


Custom H. Tonnage. 

3104.65-95 

2602.34 

2243.34 

1684.14 

1041.90 

770.3 

569.30 

329.89 

MASTS AND SPARS. 

MASTS. 

YARDS. 

MASTS. 

YARDS. 

MASTS. 

YARDS. 

MASTS. 

YARDS. 

MASTS. 

YARDS. 

MASTS. 

YARDS. 

MASTS. 

YARDS. 

MASTS. 

YARDS. 


ft. in. 

ft. in. 

ft. in. 

ft. in. 

ft. in. 

ft. fa. 

ft- in. 

ft. in. 

ft. in. 

ft. in. 

ft. in. 

ft. in. 

ft. in.. 

ft. in. 

ft. in. 

ft. in. 

|Fore . 

121 

100 

115 

96 

105 

90 

95 

84 

84 1 

77 

72 

65 

65 6 

60 9 

65 6 

55 

Top. 

63 

75 

63 

71 

63 

67 

56 

62 

50 

57 

43 

49 

42 

45 6 

37 G 

42 

Top-gallant. 

37 6 

48 

32 

46 

37 

45 

29 

41 

25 3 

39 

23 

32 

21 

30 6 

19 

28 

Royal. 

90 

23 

22 

33 

22 

30 

20 

27 

1G 

28 

15 

22 

13 

20 6 

13 

20 

1 Pole.,. 

17 


11 


6 


10 


8 


5 


6 


5 


AIN . 

US2 

110 

124 6 

107 6 

117 

105 

105 

95 

89 7 

77 

80 

75 

72 

67 6 

68 3 

55 

op. 

70 

82 

70 

78 

70 

77 

63 

71 

50 

57 

47 

56 

45 

50 6 

37 6 

42 

1 ' op gallant. 

41 

52 

41 

52 

41 

51 

32 

30 

25 

39 

24 

37 

22 

34 

19 

28 

K o) al. 

24 

36 

24 

36 

24 

35 

22 

20 

16 

28 

16 

25 

14 

22 9 

13 

20 

1 pole 

18 


12 


6 


11 


8 


5 


. 7 


5 


Mizen . 

t99 

80 

t97 

80 

98 

80 

84 

66 

170 3 

47 

66 

53 

§54 G 

52 



Top. 

55 

52 

55 

52 

53 

49 

46 

45 

38 

39 

37 

36 6 

32 

34 



iTop-gallant. 

33 

33 

29 

33 

33 

32 

24 

30 

19 

25 

20 

29 6 

16 

21 1 


4 

Royal. 

20 

23 

20 

23 

20 

21 9 

16 

19 

13 

17 

13 

15 

12 

14 



Pole 

14 


10 


5 


8 


6 


4 


5 





54 


56 


48 


45 9 


32 8 


33 


30 


22 



43 


40 


36 


32 9 


29 


25 6 


22 9 


21 



24 


21 


20 


21 3 


19 


14 6 


13 3 


15 



61 6 


60 


60 


50 


41 


35 


34 


50 


Gaff 

38 10 


38 


38 


30 


35 


28 


28 


32 



















t Steps on the Orlop Deck. t Steps on the Berth Deck. § Mast Head in a line with Main Tressletrees. 


Note .—It has been decided by the Bureau of Construction and Equipment, D. S. N., that the yards, top-mast, top-gallant mast, on 
the fore and main mast, should be alike hereafter. The rule is to take the mean of the present spars as the standard, for instance: 

The fore yard of the Potomac is.. 84 feet. 

The main “ “ “ . 95 “ 


179 


The mean is the size of the fore and main yards, 


89 6 


[Am. Ed.\ 



























































































































































































































124 


The dimensions given in this page are those of the Queen of the JVcst , the largest and most com 
plete Merchant ship ever built in the United States. 

She was built by the firm of Brown & Bell, of New York, of whom it may be said, that their mon 
uments are upon the waters ; and to whom the Editor is indebted for the details below. 



MASTS. 

YARDS. 


LENGTH. 

MAST HE’D 

DIAMETER 

LENGTH. 

DIAMETER 

YARDARM. 


ft. 

in. 

ft. 

in. 

ft. 

in. 

ft. 

in. 

ft. 

in. 

ft. 

in. 

Fore ... 

80 


14 

6 

2 

4 

68 


1 


4 


Top. 

48 


9 


i 

4 

53 

6 

1 

2} 

3 

9 

Top-gallant. 

25 

6 

o 

6 

0 

10 j 

39 

6 

0 

91 

2 

6 

Royal .... 

17 

6 





29 


o 

6' 

1 

9 

Skysail. 

14 

7 










Pole. 

9 

11 











Main. 

82 


14 

6 

o 

4 

73' 

6 

1 

7f 

4 

3 

Top. 

48 


9 


1 

4 

59 


1 

3| 

4 


Top-gallant. 

26 

6 

o 

6 

0 

10| 

45 


0 

10| 

o 

9 

Roval. 

19 

6 





34 

6 

o 

7 3 

2 


Skysail ... 

15 

7 











Pole . 

10 

6 











Mizen. 

75 


ii 

3 

1 

101 

57 

6 

1 

3| 

3 

9 

Top. 

39 

6 

7 

6 

1 

1 

2 

44 

6 

0 

Hi 

3 

6 

Top-gallant. 

20 

6 

o 


0 

8 

32 


0 

71 

2 

3 

Royal. 

14 

6 





23 


0 


1 

5 

Skysail... 

12 











Pole. .. . 

8 












Bowsprit, outboard. 

29 

6 

Bed .. 


2 

5 







Jib-boom, outside the cap . 

26 

6 

End . 

2 

3 

Can . . 


1 

4 



Flying Jib-boom .. 

17 


End . 

7 


Can. 

o 

10 



Spanker boom . 

46 


Slings 


0 

10 







Gaff . 

43 


Pole . 


7 


Slings 

... 

0 

8 




Lower Yards, 
Topsail “ 


DIAMETER OF YARDS. 

ft. in. in. 

....3 9 to i Top-gallant Yards, 
...•3 9 “ 1 R.oyal “ 


ft. in. in. 

4 3 to 1 
4 6 “ 1 


STATION OF MASTS. 


ft. in. 

From forward of the stem to centre of foremast,... 34 8 


From forward to centre of mainmast,.. 61 10 

From centre of main to centre of mizen-mast,.49 8 


h rom centre of mizen-mast to after side of post,.., 34 0 


Whole length on deck 


180 2 


Length of/eel to half scarf, 

Whole length,... 

Breadth of beam, ......... 


DIMENSIONS. 


ft. in. 
162 0 

164 6 
37 8 


Depth of lower hold,..,, 
Depth between decks, ., 
Measuring l,l68f| tons. 


ft. in. 

14 6 
7 Ah 


FASTENINGS. 

Copper and Iron fastenings used in constructing and completing the ship, 98,000 lbs. 



































































A DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS 


A-back, 
A-baft, . 

A-board, 


About ,. 

A-breast, . 

A-drift, . 

A-jloat, . 

Afore, . 

Aft, . 

After, . 

A-ground, . 

A-head, . 

A-lee, . 

All in the wind, .... 

All hands, hoy! . 

A-loft, . 

Alongside, . 

A-midships ,. ... 

To anchor, . 

To foul the anchor, .. 
To drag the anchor, . 

Anchorage, . 

The anch or isa-cockbill 
The anchor is a-peak, 

The anchor is a-weigh 

or a-trip, ., 

The anchor is backed, 

The anchor is catted ,. 
The anchor is fished ,. 
To weigh the anchor ,. 
The sheet anchor, ... 


The stream anchor ,.. 
The hedge anchor ,.. - 


—— 


A sail is a-back when its forward surface is acted upon by the wind. 

The hinder part of a ship—behind—thus a-baft the fore-mast, means any thing 
nearer to the stern than the fore-mast. 

In the ship—as the cargo is a-board. A ship is said to fall a-board, when she runs 
foul of another. To get a-board the main tack, is to bring the clew of the 
main-sail down to the chess-tree. 

A ship is said to be going about, when in the act of tacking; the order for which is 
“ready about there!” 

Opposite to. 

Broken loose from the moorings. 

Swimming—not touching the bottom. 

That part of the ship nearest to the stem or head. 

Behind—as “ stand further aft,” i. e. stand nearer to the stern. 

Hinder—as the after ports —those ports nearest to the stern.— After sails, after hatch¬ 
way, &fc. 

Not having water enough to float the ship, which rests on the ground. 

Before the ship. 

The helm is a-lee when the tiller is put to the lee side. Hard a-lee, when it is put 
as far as it will go. 

i. e. when the wind blows on the leeches, or outward extremities of the sails, and 
causes them to shake. 

The word given by the boatswain and his mates at the hatchways, to assemble the 
ship’s company. 

Up above. In the rigging. On the yards. At the mast head, &c. 

Close to the ship. 

In the middle of the ship. The helm is a-midships when the tiller is not put over 
either to one side or the other. 

To let the anchor fall over-board that it may hold the ship. 

To let the cable be twisted round the upper fluke, &c. 

When the ship pulls it with her, from the violence of the wind. 

Ground fit to anchor in. 

i. e. it is hanging by the stopper at the cat-head. 

i. e. near to the ship: thus at different distances it is called a long peak, a stay peak, 
a short stay peak. 

i. e. loosened from the ground by heaving in the cable. 

i. e. another anchor is placed at a certain distance before it, and attached to it by 
the cable of the former being fastened to it, which fixes it firmly in the ground. 

i. e. drawn up to the cat-head. 

i. e. its inner arm is drawn up by the fish pendent. 

To heave it up by the capstern or windlass. 

Is of the same size and weight as the two bower anchors and the spare anchor; 
it is a resource and dependence, should either of the bowers part, for which 
purpose the cable is always kept ready bent with a long range, that it may be 
let go on an emergency. 

Are the two anchors which are in use. 

Is used to bring the ship up with occasionally, or to steady a ship when she comes 
to a temporary mooring. 

The smallest of the anchors, to which a hawser or cablet is generally bent 

31 






















122 


An end, 


A-peak, 
Ashore , . 
A-stcrn, 
Athwart, 


A-trip, . 

Avast, . 

A-wcigh, . 

A-weather, . 

Awning, .. 

To hack the sails,. _ 

Back-stays, . 

To hag-pipe the mizen, 
To balance the mizen, . 
Ballast, . 

Bands, . 

Bar. . 

Capslern bars, _ 

Bare poles, . 

Battens, . 

Bays, . 

Beams, . 

On the beam, . 

Before the beam, . 

Abaft the beam, . 

Bearing, .. 

Beating to windward, 
Becalmed,. . 

Bechets, .. 


To belay, _ 

Bend, . 

To bend, — 
Bends, . 

Between decks, 

Bight, . 

Btlge, . 


Any spar or mast placed perpendicularly. The top-masts are an end, i. e. they are 
swayed up and Added above the lower mast. All an end, r. e. all the masts 
are up in their proper stations. 

See Anchor. 

On land. A-ground 

Behind the ship. 

Across. Athwart-hawse, across the stem. Athwart-ships, any thing lying in a di¬ 
rection across the ship. Athwart the fore foot, a shot fired by another ship 
across the bows. 

See Anchor. The top-sails are a-lrip, i. e. hoisted up. 

To cease hauling. To stop. 

See Anchor. 

The helm is said to be a-weather when the tiller is put over to the windward side 
of the ship. Hard a-weather, when it is put over as far as it will go. 

A canvas canopy placed over the deck, when the sun is powerful. 

To expose their forward surfaces to the wind, by hauling in the weather braces. 

Ropes fixed at the top-mast and top-gallant mast head, and extended to the chains 
on the ship’s sides. 

To bring the sheet over to the weather mizen shrouds, in order to lay it a-back. 

Rolling up a portion of it at the peak. 

A quantity of iron, stone, gravel, &c. placed in the hold to give a ship proper sta¬ 
bility, when she has no cargo, or but a small quantity of goods, &c. 

Pieces of canvas sewn across the sail, called Reef-bands; also a piece stuck on the 
middle of a sail to strengthen it, when half worn. 

A shoal running across the mouth of a harbor. 

Pieces of timber put into the holes in the drum-head of the capstern, (where they 
are secured with iron pins) to heave up the anchor. 

Having no sail up. 

Slips of wood nailed on the slings of the yards, which are eight square—also over 
the tarpaulings of a hatchway, to keep out the water in stormy weather. 

In men-of-war, the starboard and larboard sides between decks, before the bitts. 

Strong pieces of timber across the ship, under the decks, bound to the side by 
knees. They support and keep the ship together. 

When the wind blows at a right angle with the keel. 

When the wind or object bears on some point less than a right angle, or ninety 
degrees from the ship’s head. 

When the wind or object bears on a point which is more than a right angle, or 
ninety degrees from the ship’s course. 

The point of the compass on which any object appears. It is also applied to an 
object which lies opposite to any part of the ship—thus the buoy, &c. bears 
on the beam, the bow, the quarter, &c. 

Tacking, and endeavoring to get to windward of some head land. 

Having no wind to fill the sails. The ship being deprived of the power of the 
wind by the intervention of high land, a larger ship, &c. 

Short straps having an eye in one end, and a double walled-knot on the other, for 
suspending a yard, &c. till wanted: such are the beckets for the royal yards, 
for the bights of the sheets, &c. 

To make fast. 

A kind of knot—as a sheet bend, &c—or a seizing—such as the bends of the 
cable. 

To make fast—as to bend the sails, the cable, &c. 

The streaks of thick stuff, or strongest planks in the ship’s sides, on the broadest 
part. These are also called Wales. 

Any part of the ship below, between two decks. 

Any part of a rope between the ends. Also a collar or eye formed by a rope. 

The flat part of a ship’s bottom. Bilge Water, that which rests in the bilge, either 
from rain, shipping water, &e. 




































123 


Binnacle, . 

Birth, .. 

Bitts, . 

To hut ,.. 

Blochs, . 

Bloclc-and-block, __ 

To make a hoard, .. 
To make a stern hoard, 

Boarding, . 

Boarding netting, .. 
Boats, . 

Boatswain ,. 

Bohstays, . 

Bolsters, . 

Bolts, . 

Bolt-ropes, . 

Booms, . 

Boom-irons, . 

Tows,. 

To howse, . 

Bower, . 

Bow-lines, . 

Bowsprit, . 

Box-hauling, __ 

Boxing off, . 

Braces, . 

/ ?Y/tV Up, . 

Brails, . 

To break hulk, . 

To break the sheer, .. 

Breaming, . 

Breast-hooks, . 

Breast-work, . 

Breeching, . 

Bridles, . 

To Jmg wp,. 

To bring to, . 

To bring by the lee,. . 


To broach to, . 

Bulk-heads. . 

Bull's eye, . 

Bumkin, or boomkin.. 


The frame, or box which contains the compass. 

A place of anchorage. A cabin, or apartment. 

Large upright pins of timber, with a cross-piece, over which the bight of the 
cable is put; also smaller ones to belay ropes, such as top-sail sheets, &c. 

To place a bight of the cable over the bitts. 

Instruments with sheaves or pulleys, used to increase the power of ropes. 

When the two blocks of a tackle are drawn so close together that there is no more 
of the fall left to haul upon ; it is also termed Chock a-block. 

To tack. 

To drive a ship stern foremost, by laying the sails a-back. 

Entering an enemy’s ship by force. These men are called Boarders. 

Net-work triced round the ship to prevent the boarders from entering. 

Small vessels. Those belonging to ships are,—the Long Boat, the Launch, the 
Cutter, the Yawl, and the Jolly Boat. 

The officer who has the charge of the cordage, boats, rigging, &c. 

Ropes reeved through the cut-water, and set up with dead-eyes under the bow¬ 
sprit, to act against the power of the fore-stays: sometimes, one of these is 
taken to the end of the bowsprit, to act against the fore top-mast stays. 

Pieces of wood, or canvas stuffed, placed on the lower tressle-trees, to keep the 
rigging from chafing. 

Iron fastenings, by which the ship is secured in her hull. 

Ropes sewn round the edges of the sails. 

Large poles used to extend the studding-sails, spanker, &c. Also, spare yards, 
masts, &c. 

Iron caps fixed on the yard-arms for the studding-sail booms to rest in. 

The round part of the ship forward. 

To haul upon. 

A large anchor. 

Ropes made fast to the leeches or sides of the sails, to pull them forwards. 

A mast projecting over the stem. 

A method of waring or turning a ship from the wind. 

Turning the ship’s head from the wind, by backing the head sails. 

Ropes fastened to the yard-arms to brace them about. Also, a security to the 
rudder, fixed to the stern-post. 

The order to haul up a spanker or spencer. 

Ropes applied to the after leech and foot of the mizen and some of the stay-sails, to 
draw them up. 

To begin to unload. 

To swerve from the proper direction in which a ship should be when at anchor. 

Burning the stuff which is collected on the ship’s bottom during a long voyage. 

Pieces of timber placed across the bows of the ship, to keep them together. 

Railing on the fore part of the quarter deck, where ropes are belayed. 

A stout rope fixed to the cascable of a gun, fastened to the ship’s side, to prevent 
its running in. 

The upper part of the moorings laid in harbors for men-of-war. Also, ropes at¬ 
tached from the leeches of the square sails to the bow-lines. 

To come to an anchor. 

To make a ship stationary, stopping her way by bracing some of the sails a-back, 
and keeping others full, so that they counterpoise each other. 

When a ship is sailing with the wind very large, and flies off from it so as to bring 
it on the other side, the sails catching a-back: she is then said to be brought 
by the lee—this is a dangerous position in a high sea. 

Flying up in the wind so as to bring it on the other side, when blowing fresh. 

Partitions in the ship. 

A wooden thimble. I 

A short boom fitted to the bows of the ship for the purpose of hauling down the 
fore tack to. It Is supported on each side by a shroud. 







































124 


Bunt, . The middle part of a square sail. Also, the fore leech of a quadrangular stay-sail. 

^Bunt-lines, . Ropes attached to the foot of a square sail, to haul it up. 

Burton pendents, _ The first piece of rigging which goes over the top-mast head, to which is hooked 

a tackle, to set up the top-mast shrouds. 

Bush .. Metal let into the sheaves of blocks which have iron pins. 

Butt end ,.. The end of a plank in the ship’s side. 

Buttock .. That part of the ship’s hull under the stern, between the water line and wing 

transom. 

By the hoard, . Over the side. A mast is said to go by the board when it is carried or shot away 

just above the deck. 

By the head, . When a ship is deeper in the water forward than aft. 

By the stern, . The reverse of by the head. 

By the wind, . When a ship is as near to the wind as her head can lie with the sails filled. 

Cabin, . A room or apartment; also a bed place. 

Cable, . A large rope by which the ship is secured to the anchor. Cables take their 

names from the anchors to which they belong, as the sheet cable, the best 
bower cable, &c. they are generally 120 fathoms in length. 

To bitt the cable,. _ See Bitts. 

To heave in the cable, To pull it into the ship by the capstern or windlass. 

To pay out the cable,. To stick it out of the hawse hole. 

To veer away the cable, To slacken it so that it may run out, as in paying out. 

To serve the cable,... To wrap it round with rope, plait or horse hide, to keep it from chafing. 

To slip the cable,. _ To let it run clear out. 

Cable tier, . That part of the orlop deck where the cables are coiled. 

To coil the cable,. _ To lay it on the deck in a circular form. 

Caboose, . The place where the victuals are dressed in merchant-men. 

Call, . A silver pipe or whistle used by the boatswain and his mates, by the sounding of 

which they call up the hands, direct them to haul, to veer, to belay, &c. 

Canted, . Any thing turned from its square position. 

Canvas, . Strong cloth, of which the sails are made. 

Cap, . A block of wood which secures the top-mast to the lower mast. 

Capsize, . To turn over. 

Capstern, . A machine for drawing up the anchor by the messenger, which is taken round it, 

and applied to the cable by the nippers. 

Careening, . Heaving a vessel down one side, to clean or repair her bottom. 

Carrick bend, . A kind of knot. 

To cast, .. To pay a ship’s head off by backing the head sails when heaving up the anchor, 

so as to bring the wind on the side required. 

Cat-block, . A large double or three-fold block used for drawing the anchor up to the cat-head. 

Cat-head, . A large piece of timber or crane projecting over the bow, for drawing up the an¬ 

chor clear from the ship’s side. 

Cat-harpins, . Short legs of rope seized to the upper part of the lower shrouds, and futtock 

staves, to keep them from bulging out by the strain of the futtock shrouds, 
and to permit the bracing up of the lower yards. 

Cat's-paw, . A light air perceived by its effect on the water, but not durable. Also, a twist 

made on the bight of a rope. 

To caulk, . To drive oakum into the seams of the sides, decks, &c. 

Chains, ... Links of iron bolted to the ship’s side, having dead eyes in the upper ends, to 

which the shrouds are connected by the laniards. 

Channels, . Strong broad planks bolted to the sides, to keep the dead eyes in the chains from 

the side, to spread the rigging further out. 

Chapelling, . A ship is said to build a chapel when by neglect in light winds she turns round so 

as to bring the wind on the same part which it was before she moved. 

Chase, . A ship pursued by another. 

Bow-chase, . A gun in the fore part of the ship. 

Stern-chase, . A gun pointing a-stern in the after part of the ship. 

To chase, . To pursue, to follow. 






































125 



To cheer ,. 

Chock-a-block, . 

To clap on, . 

To claw off, . 

Cleats, . 

Clew down the top-sails, ) 
top-gallant sails, fic. y 
Clew up the top-sails, ) 
top-gallant sails, fyc. y 

Close-hauled, . 

Club-hauling, . 

Clues or clews, . 

Coamings, . 

Coiling, . 

Companion, . 

Course, . 

Crab, . 

To cun the ship, ... . 

Cut-water, . 

Davit, . 

Dead-eye, . 

Dog-vane, . 

Dolphin, . 

To douse, . 

Down-hauler, . 

Drift, . 

Driver, . 

Dunnage, . 

Darings ,. 

Ease off, . 

End for end, . 

End on, . 

Fag end, . 

Fake, . 

Falling off, . 

Fid, . 

To fill, . 

Flukes, . 

Fore, . 

Fore and aft, . 

Fore-castle, . 

Forging a-head ,.... 

Foul hawse, . 

To founder, . 

Full and by, . 

Furling, . 

Gaff, . 

Gang-way, . 

Gasket, . 

Girt, . 

Goose-neck, . 

Goose-wings, . 

Goring, . 


To huzza. What cheer ho! A salutation. 

See Block-and-block. 

To make fast, as “ clap on the stoppers ,” <$'c. 

To beat to windward from a lee shore. 

Pieces of wood to fasten ropes to. 

The order to haul the yards down upon the cap, by manning the clew-lines, &c. 

The order to haul these sails up for furling. 

As near the wind as the ship can lie. 

Tacking by means of an anchor. 

The lower corners of the square sails. 

The borders of the hatchways which are raised above the deck. 

Laying a rope down in a circular form. 

A wooden covering over the cabin hatchway. 

The point of the compass on which the ship sails. The main-sail, fore-sail and 
mizen, are also called Courses. 

A small capstern. 

To direct the helm’s-man how to steer. 

The knee of the head. 

A crane of timber used for fishing the anchors. 

A block with three holes in it, to receive the laniard of a shroud or stay. 

A small vane made of cork and feathers, placed on the weather side of the quar- 
A wreath of rope placed round a mast to support the pudding. [ter deck. 

To let fly the halliards of a top-sail—to lower away briskly. 

A rope to pull down the stay-sails, top-mast studding-sails, &c. 

Driving to leeward—driving with the tide. Drifts are also those parts where the 
rails are cut off'and end with scrolls. 

A large sail suspended to the mizen gaff. 

Wood, &c. laid at the bottom of a ship to keep the cargo dry. 

Small ropes to make fast the upper corners of square sails, See. 

To slacken. 

To let a rope or cable run quite out. 

When a ship’s bows and head sails are only seen. 

The end of a rope which is untwisted. 

One circle of a coil of rope. 

When a ship moves from the wind further than she ought. 

A tapered piece of wood or iron to splice ropes with. Also, a piece of wood which 
supports one mast upon the tressle-trees of another. 

To brace the yards so that the wind may strike the sails on their after surfaces. 
The broad parts or palms of the anchors. 

That part of the ship nearest to the head. 

The length-way of the ship, or in the direction of the keel. 

A short deck in the fore part of the ship. 

Forced a-head by the wind 
When the cables are twisted. 

To sink. 

See Close-hauled. 

Making fast the sails to the yards by the gaskets. [bent. 

A spar or yard to which the mizen of a ship or the main-sail of a brig or cutter is 
A platform reaching from the quarter deck to the fore-castle on each side. Also, 
the place where persons enter the ship. 

A piece of plait to fasten the sails to the yard. 

A ship is girted when her cables are too tight, which prevents her swinging. 

An iron hook at the end of a boom. 41 

The outer extremities of a main or fore-sail when loose, the rest of it being furled. 
Cutting a sail obliquely. 


32 



















































126 


Gripe, . A piece of timber which joins the keel and the cutwater. 

Griping, . When a ship carries her helm much to windward. 

Gunnel ,. The upper part of a ship’s side. 

Guy ,. A rope to steady a boom, &c. 

Gybing, . When (by the wind being large) it is necessary to shift the boom of a fore-and-aft 

Halliards, . Tackles or ropes to hoist up the sails. [sail. 

To hand, . The same as to furl. 

Hatch-way, . A square hole in the deck, which communicates with the hold or another deck. 

To haul .. To pull. 

To hail ,. To call out to another ship. 

A clear hawse, . When the cables are not twisted. 

Afoul hawse, . When the cables lie across, or are twisted. 

Haul up the courses, . The order for clewing up the fore-sail, main-sail and mizen (if a square sail). 

Hawse-holes, . The holes through which the cables pass. 

Hawser. . A small cable. 

To heel. . To incline to one side. 

The helm, . A wooden bar put through the head of a rudder—also called the tiller. 

To hitch, . To make fast. 

The hold, . The lower apartment of a ship where the provisions and goods are stowed. 

To haul home, . To pull the clew of a sail, &c. as far as it will go. 

Horse, . A rope made fast to the yard, on which the men stand. 

Hull, . The body of a ship. 

Jewel blocks, . Blocks at the top-sail and top-gallant yard-arms, for the studding-sail halliards. 

Jigger, . A purchase used in merchant ships to hold on the cable. 

Junk, . Pieces of old cable, out of which mats, gaskets, See. are made. 

Jury-masts, . Temporary masts, stepped when the others are carried or shot away. 

Reckling, . Old rope passed round the cable at short distances. 

Kink, . A twist or turn in a rope. 

To labor ,. To pitch and roll heavily. 

Land-fall, . Discovering the land. 

Larboard, . The left side. 

Launch ho! . To let go the top rope when the top-mast is lidded. 

Leeward, . That point towards which the wind blows. 

Lee-lurch, . When the ship rolls to leeward. 

Lee-way, . The lateral movement of a ship to leeward. 

Lee tide, . When the wind and tide are the same way. 

Lizard, . A small piece of rope with a thimble spliced into a larger one. 

Looming, . The appearance of a distant object, such as a ship, the land, &c. 

Lubber, . A sailor who does not know his duty. 

Luff, . A direction to the steer’s-man to put the helm to leeward. 

Luff tackle, . A large tackle consisting of a double and a single block. 

Lying to, . See To bring to. 

To man the yards,... To send men upon them. 

Messenger, . A rope attached to the cable to heave up the anchor by, 

Mizen, . The aftermost sail in a ship. 

To moor. . To secure a ship by more than one cable. 

Moorings, . The place where a vessel is moored. Also, anchors with chains and bridles laid 

in rivers for men-of-war to ride by. 

Neap tides, . Those tides which happen when the moon is in her quarters, and are not so high 

as the spring tides. 

Neaped ,. A ship is said to be neaped when she is left on shore by -these tides, and must wait 

for the next spring tides. 

To near the land, _ To approach the shore. 

No near, . A direction to the helm’s-man to put the helm a little a-weather, to keep the sails 

full. To let her come no nearer to the wind. 

Nippers, . Plaiting or selvagees to bind the cable to the messenger. 

Off and on, . Coming near the land on one tack, and leaving it on "the other. 
























































127 


Offing, . Out to sea—from the land. 

Orlop deck, . The lowest deck in the ship, lying on the beams of the hold. The place where 

the cables are coiled, and where other stores are kept. 

Overboard ,. Out of the ship. 

Overhauling, . To haul a fall of rope through a block till it is slack. Also, examining a ship, &c. 

Painter, . A rope by which a boat is made fast. 

Palm ,. See Fluke. 

To pass, . To hand any thing from one to another; or to place a rope or lashing round a yard, 

To pay, . To rub tar, pitch, &c. on any thing with a brush. [&c. 

To pay off, . To make a ship’s head recede from the wind by backing the head sails, &c. 

To peak up, . To raise the after end of a gaff. 

Plying, . Turning to windward. 

Pooping, . A ship is said to be pooped when she is struck by a heavy sea, on the stern or quarter. 

Port, . To the left side. This term is used to the helm’s-man to put the helm to the left, 

instead of the word “larboard ,”—to make a distinction from the affinity of 
sound in the word “ starboard .” 

Preventer ,. Any thing for temporary security; as, a preventer brace, &c. 

Quarter, . That part of a ship’s side between the main chains and the stern. 

Racking a fall, . Seizing the parts of a tackle-fall together by cross turns. 

Rake, . The projection of a ship at the stem and stern, beyond the extent of the keel—also 

the inclination of a ship’s masts either forward or aft from a perpendicular line. 

Range of cable, . A sufficient length hauled up to permit the anchor to drop to the bottom. 

To rattle down the shrouds, To fix the rat-lines on them. 

To reef, . To reduce a sail by tying it round the yard with points. 

To reeve, . To put a rope through a block, &c. 

To ride, . To be held by the cable. To “ride easy” is when a ship does not labor much. 

To “ride hard” is when the ship pitches with violence. 

To rig, . To fit the rigging to the masts. 

To right, . A ship is said to right when she rises to her upright position, after being laid down 

by a violent squall. 

To right, the helm,... To put it a-midships, or in its fore and aft position, parallel to the keel. 

To round in, . To haul in a brace, &e. which is not very tight. 

To rouse in, . To haul in the slack part of the cable. 

To run down, . When one ship sinks another by running over her. 

To scud, . To sail before the wind in a storm. 

To scuttle a ship,. _ To make holes in her bottom to sink her. 

To serve, . To wind any thing round a cable or rope, to prevent its being chafed. 

To seize, . To make fast or bind. 

To sheer, . To go in and out, and not in a direct course. 

To ship, . To put any thing on board.— “ Ship a sea,” when the sea breaks into the ship. 

To shiver, . To make the sails shake. 

The slack of a rope, Sfc. That part which hangs loose. 

To slip a cable, . To let it run out to the end. 

To slue, . To turn any thing about. 

To sound, . To find the bottom by a leaden plummet. 

To take a spell, . To be in turn on duty at the lead, the pump, &c. 

To spill, . To take the wind out of the sails by the braces, &c. in order to reef or hand them. 

To splice, . To join two ropes together, by uniting the strands. 

Spoondrift, . A continued flying of the spray and waves over the surface of the sea. 

To spring a mast,... To crack or split it. 

A spring. . A rope made fast to the cable at the bow, and taken in abaft, in order to expose 

the ship’s side to any direction. 

Spring tides, . The highest tides at the full and change of the moon. 

To stand on, . To keep in the course. 

To stand by, . To be ready. 

Starboard_ _ The right side. 

To steer, __ To manage a ship by the movement of the helm. 















































128 


To stopper the cable.. 

Strand, ... 

Stranded, . 

To stretch, . 

To strike, . 

To surge the messenger, 

To sway, . 

To swing, . 

To tack, . 

Taught, . 

Taunt. . 

Tending, . 

Tier, . 

Traverse, . 

Trying, .... . 

Turning to windward, 
Twice-laid stuff, .... 

To veer and haul, _ 

To unbend, . 

To unmoor, . 

To unreeve, . 

To unrig, . 

To unship, . 

Waist of a ship, .... 

Wake, . 

Wales, . 

To ware, . 

To warp, . 

Watch, . 

Water-logged, . 

Way of a ship, . 

To weather a ship, .. 

A weather tide, . 

Weather-beaten, .... 

To weigh, . 

To whip, . 

Wind’s eye, . 

Between wind and water, 

To wind a boat, fyc.,. 

Wind-rode, . 

To windward, . 

To work to windward, 



To keep it from running out, by fastening short ropes to it, called Stoppers. 

One of the divisions of a rope. 

When one of the divisions is broken. Also when a ship is run on shore so that 
she cannot be got off, she is said to be stranded. 

To stand on different tacks under a press of sail. 

To beat against the bottom. Also to lower the flag in token of submission. Low¬ 
ering the top-masts is commonly termed striking them. 

To slacken it suddenly. 

To hoist up the yards and top-masts. 

To turn a ship from one side of her anchor to the other, at the change of the tide. 
To turn a ship by the sails and rudder against the wind. 

A corruption of tight. 

Long, lofty. 

The movement of a vessel in swinging at anchor. 

The place where the cables are coiled. 

To sail on different courses. When a rope runs freely through a thimble, &c. it 
is said to traverse. 

Laying to in a gale of wind, under a small sail. 

Tacking. 

Rope made from the yarns of a cable, &c. which has been half worn. 

To pull a rope and then slacken it. 

To cast loose. 

To reduce a ship to a single anchor, after riding by two. 

To pull a rope out of a block. 

To deprive a ship of her rigging. 

To take any thing from the place in which it was fixed. 

That part between the main and fore drifts—also a term sometimes used for the 
spare or waste anchor, from its being stowed near the fore drift, or fore part 
of the waist. 

The track left by the ship on the water which she has passed over. 

See Bends. 

To turn a ship round from the wind. 

To move a ship by hawsers, &c. 

A division of the ship’s company who keep the deck for a certain time. One is 
called the starboard, and the other the larboard watch. 

The state of a leaky ship when she is so full of water as to be heavy and unman¬ 
ageable. 

Her progress through the water. O ^ 

To get to windward of her. 

A tide or stream which runs to windward. 

Any thing worn or damaged by bad weather. 

To heave the anchor out of the ground. 

To bind the end of a rope with yarn, to prevent its untwisting—also to hoist any 
thing by a rope which is reeved through a single block. 

That point from which the wind blows in a direct line. 

That part of the ship’s bottom which is just at the surface of the water, or what 
is called the water line. 

To turn it round from its original position. 

When the ship is kept a-stern, &c. of her anchor solely by the wind. 

Towards that point from whence the wind blows. 

To make a progress against the wind by tacking. 




tl) 


END. 


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